The present report presents my advice to a government body regarding the potential tools for the management and assessment of the environmental impact of the proposed construction and general usage of a football stadium. The stadium is expected to have a capacity of 20,000 including conference and hospitality facilities, car parking, and retail outlets. Although the environmental assessment tools have several similarities, there also exist significant differences in their applications, advantages, and limitations.
Environmental Management Tools and Methods
The construction, as well as the operation of the proposed football stadium complex, is likely to result in some impacts on the environment. Firstly, the construction will require a significant input of natural resources, vast energy as well as the release of tons of carbon dioxide and landfill wastes. On the other hand, with its expected capacity of up to 20,000 supporters, the operation of the football stadium complex with all its facilities after the completion of its construction, is also likely to have a major environmental footprint. The environmental footprint may be in the form of noise pollution, generation of landfill wastes, or increased greenhouse emissions through transportation and human activities.
Various recent studies have revealed that the construction and subsequent operation of stadiums may significantly worsen the traffic flow in a particular area thereby resulting in increased traffic-related air pollution. Moreover, the increased vehicular emissions associated with the activities around the proposed stadium may also result in the release of diverse number harmful chemicals in the atmosphere. Fortunately, there are several tools that can effectively be employed to help in the assessment and management of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction and operation of the football complex. This paper focuses on the use of three major environmental assessment tools namely, EIA, SEA and Carbon Footprinting in the management and assessment of the environmental impact of the proposed construction and general usage of the football.
- Application of the tools/ methods in the Assessment of Environmental Impact of the Proposed Project
To minimize the diverse potential environmental impacts of the proposed football stadium complex, an effective management of the various environmental impacts of the activities during the construction as well as general usage of the project. Also, a proper quantitative assessment of the possible impacts such as of landfill wastes, noise pollution, the release of toxic emissions and increased greenhouse emissions is required. According to Fischer (2007, p.41), this may be particularly important in providing the necessary options for the mitigation and prevention of the various environmental impacts that are likely to result from the construction and general usage of the football stadium project.
The three major environmental assessment tools namely, EIA, SEA and Carbon Footprinting are critically important in important in providing the necessary options for the mitigation and prevention of the various environmental impacts that are likely to result from the construction and general usage of the football stadium project.
- Environmental Impact Assessment
The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is another critically important tool that may be used for the management and assessment of the environmental impact of the proposed construction and general usage of the proposed football stadium. According to many experts, EIA is largely a formal process that can effectively be used in predicting both the positive and negative environmental consequences of the proposed project, prior to making the decision to commence the proposed development of the project. In the United Kingdom, formal Environmental Impact Assessment are primarily governed by the administrative procedures related to decision-making documentation, public participation and may sometimes be subject to judicial review.
In the case of the proposed construction and operation of a football stadium complex with expected capacity of up to 20,000 supporters, one of the main roles of using Environmental Impact Assessment as a tool for the for the assessment of the various environmental impacts of the project would be to enable the relevant decision makers involved in the planning of the project to make preliminary considerations regarding the environmental impacts and decide whether to carry on or terminate the project based on the findings of the environmental assessment. This is particularly because EIA entails the entire process from the identification, prediction, evaluation, to mitigation of the social, biophysical as well as the other important potential effects of the proposals of the project prior to the making of major decisions regarding the project.
A diverse number of methods are currently being used in Environmental Impact Assessment. For example, a product environmental Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) can be carried out to help identify and measure some of the potential impacts of the project activities on the environmental. Some of the activities that can be considered in the product environmental Life-Cycle Analysis include the extraction and transportation of the raw materials used in the project, the impact of the heavy machinery and equipment used, as well as the potential waste production and disposal. On the other hand, the Environmental Impact Assessment tool may also employ the use of fuzzy logic and other relevant methods of measuring data in order to help estimate the possible values of the environmental impact indicators of the proposed project (Wilson, 2008).
However, a number of potential environmental impacts cannot be easily quantified. Such impacts include the possible impacts of the project on the landscape, lifestyle, as well as its social acceptance. The motivation behind the appraisal is to guarantee that chiefs consider the ecological effects when choosing whether or not to continue with a task. The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) characterizes an ecological effect evaluation as “the procedure of distinguishing, foreseeing, assessing and relieving the biophysical, social, and other applicable impacts of advancement recommendations preceding real choices being taken and responsibilities made (Ahmed & Sanchez, 2008, p.345). EIAs are interesting in that they don’t oblige adherence to a foreordained natural result, but instead they oblige leaders to record for ecological values in their choices and to legitimize those choices in light of definite natural studies and open remarks on the potential ecological effects
As compared to the other Environmental Impact Assessment and management tools such as Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Carbon Footprinting, the EIA is unique in that it does not require any strict adherence to some form of predetermined regulations or environmental outcomes. On the contrary, Environmental Impact Assessment only stipulates that the decisions makers involved in the planning and design of the project, like in the case of the proposed football stadium complex, must always ensure that they account for all the environmental values in their decisions and are also able to justify the particular decisions they have made on the basis of comprehensive environmental studies and public feedback regarding the possible environmental impacts of the proposed project.
- Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is one of the most appropriate tools that can be applied by the relevant government body involved in the construction of the proposed football stadium to help in the identification of the likely environmental effects of the project, as well as identify some of the possible options for the mitigation and prevention of the various environmental impacts that are likely to result from the construction and general usage of the football stadium project. As an environmental assessment tool, Strategic Environmental Assessment is generally a systematic decision-making tool that was particularly designed to ensure that the environmental sustainability aspects of a given project are effectively taken into consideration in the policy, planning and execution of the project.
The SEA model applies to a wide range of public plans associated with the proposed construction and operation of a football stadium complex, some of which may include carrying out an assessment of the land use of the project, impact of the project on the transport, waste management issues, and energy use, among others. According to many experts, the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) normally requires that the relevant parties involved in the construction and management of the proposed project must consult the relevant environmental authorities, especially during the screening stage of the project.
On the other hand, once an SEA report has been submitted to the relevant environmental authorities, it is also obligatory that the assessment of the reasonable potential alternatives chosen by the project must be evaluated. Basically, the effective application of SEA is normally carried out within a structured support and decision-making processes designed to ensure sustainable development by providing critical focus on the potential environmental issues as well as the possible alternatives. Additionally, as an evidence-based environmental assessment tool, SEA is likely to not only add the much needed scientific basis in the assessment of the environmental impacts but will also provide a discrete intervention option to address some of the environmental issues that may arise.
The SEA Directive applies to an extensive variety of open arranges and projects (e.g. ashore utilize, transport, vitality, waste, farming, and so on). The SEA Directive does not allude to strategies. The SEA Directive is in power following 2001 and ought to have been transposed by July 2004. Plans and projects in the feeling of the SEA Directive must be arranged or embraced by a power (at national, provincial or nearby level) and be needed by authoritative, administrative or regulatory procurements.
Extensively talking, for the arrangements/programs excluded over, the Member States need to complete a screening system to figure out if the arrangements/projects are prone to have critical natural impacts. In the event that there are huge impacts, an SEA is required. The screening methodology is in light of criteria situated out in Annex II of the Directive.
The SEA strategy can be abridged as takes after: an ecological report is arranged in which the probable noteworthy impacts on the earth and the sensible choices of the proposed arrangement or project are distinguished. General society and the ecological powers are educated and counseled on the draft plan or program, and the natural report arranged. As respects arranges and projects which are liable to have noteworthy consequences for nature in another Member State, the Member State in whose domain the arrangement or system is being arranged must counsel the other Member State(s). On this issue, the SEA Directive takes after the general methodology taken by the SEA Protocol to the UN ECE Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context. The natural report and the aftereffects of the discussions are considered before reception. When the arrangement or system is embraced, the ecological powers and general society are educated and applicable data is made accessible to them. So as to recognize unforeseen unfriendly impacts at an early stage, huge natural impacts of the arrangement or system are to be checked.
Regarding its relationship with the other Environmental Impact Assessment tools such as EIA and Carbon Footprinting, SEA is usually conducted before an Environmental Impact Assessment is carried out. This means that the important information regarding the environmental impact of the project plan obtained from the strategic environmental assessment can be applied at a later stage during an Environmental Impact Assessment. In the case of the proposed football stadium development, this may be critically important in reducing the amount of tasks required to be undertaken during the Environmental Impact Assessment stages of the project.
It is, however, worth noting that in the UK, the SEA directly may only apply to the planning stage of the projects but does not affect the policies within such plans. The key stages of carrying out a Strategic Environmental Assessment(SEA) include: the screening phase where the project plan is investigated to determine if is covered be the SEA legislation; scoping phase where the limitations and assumptions of the assessment are discussed; and finally, the determination stage in which the likely environmental impacts are effectively determined. This is important because a football stadium with a capacity of 20,000 individuals is likely to have a major environmental footprint in the form of noise pollution, generation of landfill wastes and increased greenhouse emissions through transportation and human activities.
1.3 Carbon Footprint
A Carbon Footprint is precisely characterized as “the aggregate arrangements of nursery gas emanations created by an association, occasion, item or individual.”
The aggregate Carbon Footprint cannot be ascertained on account of the vast measure of information obliged and the way that carbon dioxide can be created by normal events. It is thus that Wright, Kemp, and Williams, writing in the diary Carbon Management, have proposed a more practicable definition:
A measure of the aggregate sum of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) discharges of a characterized populace, framework or movement, considering every single applicable source, sinks and capacity inside of the spatial and worldly limit of the populace, framework or action of hobby (2011). Figured as carbon dioxide comparable (CO2e) utilizing the significant 100-year an Earth-wide temperature boost potential (GWP100). Nursery gasses (GHGs) can be radiated through transport, land freedom, and the creation and utilization of nourishment, powers, fabricated products, materials, wood, streets, structures, and administrations. For effortlessness of reporting, it is frequently communicated regarding the measure of carbon dioxide, or its likeness different GHGs, discharged.
The idea name of the Carbon Footprint starts from natural foot shaped impression, examination, which was produced by Rees and Wackernagel in the 1990s which evaluates the quantity of “earths” that would hypothetically be obliged if everybody on the planet expanded assets at the same level as the individual ascertaining their biological foot shaped impression.
An individual’s, nation’s, or association’s carbon foot shaped impression can be measured by undertaking a GHG discharges appraisal, or other calculative exercises meant as carbon bookkeeping. When the measure of a carbon foot shaped impression is known, a system can be conceived to lessen it, e.g. by innovative advancements, better process and item administration, changed Green Public or Private Procurement (GPP), carbon catch, utilization methods, carbon balancing and others.
The fundamental impacts of Carbon Footprint encompass populace, financial yield, and vitality and carbon force of the economy. These components are the principle focuses of people and organizations keeping in mind the end goal to diminishing carbon foot shaped impressions. Researchers recommend the best approach to diminishing a carbon foot shaped impression is to either diminish the measure of vitality required for the creation or the lessening of the reliance on carbon emanating powers.
The Average Carbon Footprint in the United States versus World The normal U.S. family unit carbon foot shaped impression is around 50 tons CO2e every year. The single biggest wellspring of outflows for the common family is from driving (fuel utilization). Transportation in general (driving, flying & little sum from open travel), is the biggest general classification, trailed by lodging (power, regular gas, waste, development) then nourishment (for the most part from red meat, dairy and fish items, additionally incorporates emanations from all other sustenance), then merchandise took after ultimately by administrations. The carbon foot shaped impression of U.S. families is around 5 times more prominent than the worldwide normal, which is pretty nearly 10 tons CO2e per family every year. For most U.S. family units, the absolute most essential activity to diminish their carbon foot shaped impression is driving less or changing to a more effective vehicle.
In conclusion, environmental assessment tools like SEA, EIA and Carbon Footprinting are critically important in minimizing the diverse potential environmental impacts of the proposed football stadium complex, an effective management of the various environmental impacts of the activities during the construction as well as general usage of the project.
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Ahmed, K., & Sánchez T. E. (2008). Strategic environmental assessment for policies an instrument for good governance. Washington, DC, World Bank. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=459311.
Wilson, L. (2008). A Practical Method for Environmental Impact Assessment Audits Environ Impact Assess Rev 18: 59-71
Wright, L. Kemp, S., Williams, I. (2011). “‘Carbon footprinting’: towards a universally accepted definition“. Carbon Management 2 (1): 61–72.