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Hospitality Industry Essay

Introduction

For this particular research, I have chosen the hospitality industry. As regards to the annotated bibliography, I have read five different articles on issues of attracting and retaining employees in the hospitality industry in different countries. One of the articles is tailored to illustrate how to derive job satisfaction and organizational commitment from employees in the hospitality industry. Two of the articles are illustrated on the factors that lead to employee turnover rate. Consequently, another article focuses on the impacts of employee turnover, while the last explains on job stress and its relationship to employee turnover intention through a moderating variable. I found that attracting and retaining employees in the hospitality industry is not just an issue that affects hospitality in one country, but all and sundry. However, effective measures to rectify the situation have been recommended in one of the articles.

Dr. Sunil, K., & Mrs. Sonia, D. (2016). International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach. HRM Practices and Retention of Employees in Hotel Industry in South Mumbai, 13-20.

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Keywords: HRM Practices, Hotel Industry, Employee Retention

This article examines HRM practices and retention of employees in the hotel industry in South Mumbai. It illustrates on how HRM practices employee affects retention rates in the hotel industry, particularly in India.It examines how each of the HRM practices namely employee engagement, employee relations, employee branding, employee grievances, retirement benefits, career development, performance appraisal, work-life balance, health and safety, and training and development impact on retention rates, either negatively or positively. The research is conducted to find out the determinants of employee retention. It is also meant to examine HRM practices resulting in retention of employees. Thus, the determinants are identified from within the HRM practices are determined to have the potential to positively foster retention in an organization. The research methodology involved the collection of data from a sample size of 160 employees selected based on simple random sample techniques. The data was collected from five hotels in South Mumbai. The article finds out that among all the HRM practices listed for the employees in the research, the ones that increased the possibility of retention, hence qualifying as determinants were training & development, career development, and Performance Appraisal. The rest of the HRM practices led to dissatisfaction among the employees, implying that they can increase employee rate of leaving an organization.

This study is specially tailored for hotels. However, that is relevant to my research, as its theme is based on the hospitality of which hotels are part of. The study is useful in this research as it will elaborate on the reason that the sector has found it difficult to retain talent for a long time. I will use the findings to analyze my sector and illustrate why after trying a lot to ensure that they do not lose talent, they still do. It will elaborate on how the hospitality industry has long put their efforts in the wrong HRM practices while seeking to increase retention rate. The study findings will assist in this research as they will elaborate on the specific HRM practices that the hospitality industry is supposed on improving to reduce the challenge of high employee turnover rates. It will illustrate that as much as the organization seeks to improve on HRM practices, not all of them that are likely to have a positive impact on the employees, attracting them to stay.

Sow, H. C., & Oi, M. K. (2011). A Study of Human Resources Recruitment, Selection, and Retention Issues in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry in Macau. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 10: 421–441.

Keywords: Assessment, communications skills, retention, turnover, Macau

This article seeks to examine some issues, like the manager’s attitudes in recruitment as regards to the selection methods, the skills that seek in new employees, and the ever-increasing challenge of an employee quitting jobs that suit them. Due to the tight labor situation in Macau that made it difficult to attract motivated, trained, and qualified employees and retaining them, this study was formulated to shed more light on the matter. Therefore, the study was based on the objectives of determining how employers in the hospitality and tourism industry evaluate their applicants, the skills that the employers value most, and the reasons that have brought about a high turnover rate in Macau. The research was conducted using questionnaires as the research instrument and issued to 135 employers. The study findings indicate that the employees assessed the employees using some methods, but interviews and resumes were outstanding. The findings also indicate that the employers have a preference for human relations skills when employing. Lastly, the findings indicate that the major cause for high turnover is salary.

This study is especially important in this research that I am, conducting because; it is in the hospitality industry, the same industry I am planning to explore. Therefore, it is essential as it will offer background literature for tackling the research that will even guide the formulation of objectives, research questions and the overall direction of the study. Primarily, it will indicate some of the major challenges that the managers have in attracting the employees such as the contradiction on the assessment methods to use. It will also assist in building up a list of the possible causes of high employee turnover rate, especially that it determined salary to be key. As the research will not be based on Macau, the information gained from the primary data to be conducted will be examined against this one of Macau to check for consistency in trend. If the results from the two studies are found to be consistent, then it will be used as evidence. Otherwise, it can be used as a critique if the findings are not similar.

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Namra, R., & Tahira, M. (2017). Job Stress, Psychological Capital and Turnover Intentions in Employees of Hospitality Industry. Journal of Behavioural Sciences, 60-80.

Keywords: Job stress, psychological capital, turnover intentions, hospitality industry, employees, efficacy, hope, optimism, resilience

This article is tailored to illustrate that increased stress in the hospitality industry, and most especially in hotelier increases the turnover intentions. Turnover intentions are what consequently results in employee turnover. The research tries to find a way in which it can moderate the two through the psychological capital. The hypothesis for the study stated that there is likely to be a positive relationship between the job stress and turnover intentions in employees, negative relationship between psychological capital and turnover intentions in employees, Psychological capital is likely to moderate the relationship in job stress and turnover intentions in employees, main effect of designation and organization star on job stress, psychological capital and turnover intentions of employees and interaction effect of designation and organization star on job stress, psychological capital and turnover intention in employees. The research was a carried out from a sample size of 200 people, using Non-probability purposive sampling strategy. Among the 200 in the sample, 67 were top management employees, while the remaining 133 were middle management employees. The managers involved in the study were from of three, four and five-star hotels of Lahore. The findings indicate that there indeed exists a positive relationship between job stress and turnover intention and a negative one with and negatively related to the psychological capital of the employees. So, when employees stress increase, their intentions to leave increase and their psychological capital decreases.

The findings of this particular study are essential in the analysis as they will assist in the determination of factors that bring about employee intentions within organizations. It will further illustrate on the chronicle of the factors within the organizations. The model as illustrates in the article is important in this research as it will assist to determine ways in which factors that created employee intentions can be moderated. It will further assist as evidence of the relationship between the factors and employee turnover, and the relationship between the factors and turnover intentions the relationship between the moderating variables with the turnover intentions.

Francisco, G., Sandra, M. S., & Tomás, L.-G. (2016). The Effect Of Educational Level On Job Satisfaction And Organizational Commitment: A Case Study In Hospitality. International Journal Of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 243–259.

KEYWORDS Educational level; hospitality industry; job satisfaction; organizational commitment; Spain

This particular article was tailor-made to examine if education had any effect on either or both of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The article is systematic in examining the issue, through first giving an introduction to how organizations have evolved and the need to continually maintain performance. It highlights that performance and productivity are underpinned by human resources being satisfied and committed. The study is thus based on two hypotheses. The initial one seeks to determine if there exists any relationship between employees who have low educational levels with those who have higher job satisfaction levels. The second sought to understand if the low educational level of employees leads to a consequent the high organizational commitment. The study was empirical focusing on all hotel establishments in city and province of Cordoba. The research was done in 2 phases. During the first phase, the researchers divided the province of Cordoba into smaller geographical units that would ease their visits to the hotels. During the second phase, researchers contacted the managers directly and sought for permission to conduct their research, and collected questionnaires within the period too. The findings were that there is a significant relationship between increasing relationship between satisfaction and organizational commitment. Satisfied employees tend to have organizational commitment. Finally, the findings supported the second hypothesis that low educational level of employees is consequently matched with high organizational commitment.

Even though the subject is seemingly not directly related to attracting and retaining employees within the hospitality industry, it is tailored to offer solutions regarding job satisfaction and organizational commitment. I would then use this in my research to establish a hypothesis to test on satisfaction and organizational commitment. The test would be geared towards determining if each of the variables can lead to employee turnover. For instance, the hypothesis would test if low job satisfaction can lead to employee turnover. The second would be low organizational commitment results to an increase in employee turnover rate. The results would then be used as advancement to the study, however, on the sides of turnover. Implying, there will be a defined relationship between education level and employee turnover in hospitality organizations.

Agaptus, C. ( 2009). The Impact Of Employee Turnover: The Case Of Leisure, Tourism. The Consortium Journal, 43-57.

Keywords: Employee turnover, hospitality industry, service industry

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This article is focused on elaborating on the effects that turnover has to the tourism sector. By so doing, it first explains what turnover rate by specifying that not all employees who leave an organization contribute to turnover. It determines what qualifies employee turnover. It further examines the reasons that can lead to employee turnover in tourism. The objective of the study is illustrated in the title. It is, however, important to note that this article is primarily based on secondary information that is obtained from government archives and many other credible sources to deliver research that is equally credible. The results indicate that leisure and tourism sector is the leading in employee turnover at 56.4% according to data obtained from Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), in the US. The study indicates that this high percentage of employee turnover in the industry has affected the sector in a negative manner, listing all of the negatives determined. The article concludes by offering means that can be used in the sector to reduce employee turnover to some percentage that does not have as many adverse effects to the sector.

While this study is focused on the impacts of employee turnover, it is instrumental in the research that I am planning to undertake because; it will illustrate the negative side of the turnover. The theme of impact is directly related to the topic of the challenges that that are faced in retention of employees. It will further provide evidence that turnover is a major issue in the hospitality industry necessitating fixing to reduce the many negative impacts it has on the industry. It will also assist in listing the negative impacts of employee turnover and the manner in which it has negatively influences the industry. The article is further important as it offers possible measures that be used to reduce the employee turnover, and this can be utilized in the recommendations sections of how to tackle the menace.