Select Page

Musculoskeletal Disorders Literature Review

Musculoskeletal disorders are any injuries, damages or disorders coming from the joints or other body tissues in the lower or upper limbs or the back of a human being. In most cases, these disorders are brought by different sitting postures especially in the workplace. Statistically, MSDs are responsible for almost 30% of the total compensation costs in the United States. These disorders are the most significant category of injuries among workers in different sectors.

Esmaeilzadeh, Ozcan and Capan (2012), researched to determine the impacts of ergonomic interventions on work-related upper extremity MSDs among computer workers. They used 400 computer workers to answer the questionnaires they provided on MUEMSS. The research recorded those 94 subjects who had WUEMSS using computers at least three hours a day participated in a randomized and prospective six months intervention. They used the visual analogue scale to evaluate the WUEMSS intensity and the functional scale to assess the functional limitations of the upper and neck extremities. The results showed that ergonomic intervention programs might be useful in minimizing the ergonomic risks among computer workers and enhance the secondary prevention of WUEMSSDs.

Need help with essays, dissertations, homework, and assignments? Stop wasting time and post your project on tutlance and get a real professional to do your work at CHEAP prices. Watch while Tutlance experts outbid each other.


Secondary and primary prevention strategies ought to encompass a wide range of anatomical sites and precisely aim at various occupational groups. Gray et al. (2009) researched the impact and prevalence of MSDs in New Zealand nurses, office workers and postal workers. The study used a postal survey to ask questions to the participants about MSDs, physical, demographic and psychosocial factors. They randomly selected nurses from the Nursing Council database. They also used the employer’s database to collect information on postal workers and office workers from the electoral roll in 2005. The research found that postal workers experienced a high prevalence of MSDs compared to nurses and office workers.

Intervention programs should be initiated for the MSDs prevention while focusing on psychological and physical jobs demands reduction and raising the decision latitude levels. Barzideh, Choobineh and Tabatabaee (2012) conducted research on job stress dimensions among Iranian nurses while examining their relationship to MSDs. They used to cross- sectional study where they randomly selected 385 nurses for evaluation. The study showed that the decision latitude dimensions and the social support recorded low levels among the nurses. Another result showed that 89.9% of the participants experienced some form of MSDS in the last 12 months before the assessment. Conclusively, the study found that most of the subjects were exposed to high degrees of stress at their job and MSDs prevalence level was high.

Instances of disability also have significant impacts on the rate of MSDs in individuals. Woolf et al. (2014) researched the burden of disability caused by MSDs. The study outlined a summary of regional and global prevalence, costs, overall burden and disability for the common MSDs that include neck pain, rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The study addressed different trends over time and predictions of MSDs disability prevalence together with demographic variations. Moreover, MSDs are the leading cause of work disability among the average working-age populace.

Clinical intervention on MSDs has helped the development of various tools used to prevent the disorder. Ioppolo et al. (2014) researched the clinical application of shock wave therapy in MSDs. They examined past sources on the usage of shock wave therapy and whether it was useful or not. They found out that majority of the sources they analyzed showed that SWT was positive and beneficial as the treatment of MSDs. Its success was approximated to be 65% to 91%.

Barbara et al. (2008) research outlined the assessment of the validity of QuickDASH and SF-12 as surveillance tools among workers with upper or neck extremity MSDs. The authors compared the discriminative, concurrent efficacy as well as discriminate of the QuickDASH and SF-12 tools which were tested among 231 participants with various clinical diagnoses of upper extremity and neck MSDs and 175 workers who showed ready symptoms. The research found out that QuickDASH results were moderately correlated to PCS-12 scores and only QuickDASH and PCS-12 surveillance tools can be used in the active working populace.

There is an excellent interdependence on repetition and force concerning MSDS risks. In most cases, this interaction is brought about by fatigue failure processes in affected areas. Moreover, Heberger and Gallagher (2012) examined the interaction of repetition and force on MSDs risk. They performed a systematic review of 12 different kinds of literature that had considered the interplay between repetition and effect regarding MSDs risks. They found that among the 12 studies, 10 of them proved the evidence of interaction between force and repetition. They showed that energy and repetition might prove to be interdependent in their influence on MSD risks.

MSDs have high impacts on both health and economic well-being of the affected individuals as well as the society. Bhattacharya (2014) researched the costs of occupational MSDs in the U.S. where between 1992 and 2010, about 29-35% of occupational illnesses and injuries were caused by MSDs either from work or away from work. The study used the human capital method and cost-of-illness to estimate the work-related MSDs and CTS in the U.S. The research found out that the direct costs of MSDs were $1.5 billion while the indirect costs were $1.1 billion for the year 2007. Moreover, the total costs of occupational MSDs declined from the period 2003 through 2007.

References: Musculoskeletal Disorders Literature Review

Barzideh, M., Choobineh, A. R., & Tabatabaee, H. R. (2014). Job stress dimensions and their relationship to musculoskeletal disorders in Iranian nurses. Work47(4), 423-429.

Bhattacharya, A. (2014). Costs of occupational musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the United States. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics44(3), 448-454.

Esmaeilzadeh, S., Ozcan, E., & Capan, N. (2014). Effects of ergonomic intervention on work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders among computer workers: a randomized controlled trial. International archives of occupational and environmental health87(1), 73-83.

Fan, Z. J., Smith, C. K., & Silverstein, B. A. (2008). Assessing validity of the QuickDASH and SF-12 as surveillance tools among workers with neck or upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Journal of Hand Therapy21(4), 354-365.

Ioppolo, F., Rompe, J. D., Furia, J. P., & Cacchio, A. (2014). Clinical application of shock wave therapy (SWT) in musculoskeletal disorders. European journal of physical and rehabilitation medicine50(2), 217-230.

Gallagher, S., & Heberger, J. R. (2013). Examining the interaction of force and repetition on musculoskeletal disorder risk: a systematic literature review. Human factors55(1), 108-124.

Harcombe, H., McBride, D., Derrett, S., & Gray, A. (2009). Prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal disorders in New Zealand nurses, postal workers and office workers. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health33(5), 437-441.

March, L., Smith, E. U., Hoy, D. G., Cross, M. J., Sanchez-Riera, L., Blyth, F., … & Woolf, A. D. (2014). Burden of disability due to musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders. Best practice & research Clinical rheumatology28(3), 353-366.

Musculoskeletal Disorders Literature Review

Stop struggling with your academic work! Why not post your project and get 100% authentic work done at your price? Click the button below to choose your expert for free.

Find a Tutor