Reasons For Population Aging In Germany
According to Bosworth and Gary (1998), population aging is defined as the process under, which the median age of a developed nation rises owing to decline in fertility rates and rising life expectancy. After World War II, most of the developing nations including Germany experienced a baby boom considering that most of the soldiers and citizens did not have time to see their wives for a long time. This move transpired to affect the population structure of Germany thus, attributing to population ageing. Numerous reasons lead to population ageing in Germany; therefore, this research paper will discuss the factors that attributed to population ageing in Germany being one of the developed nation.
Research by Rotkirch (2014) indicates that the average age of the first-time mothers in Germany has increased since more women are waiting until their 30s, or 40s to start having children. Most people do concentrate on settling into their careers, which take them time before they embark on starting their families. Rotkirch (2014) further holds that by the time they will have settled in their careers, many are old that their fertility rates must have gone done; this makes it cumbersome for them to have children than when they could be in their 20s or 30s. In this manner, Bosworth and Gary (1998), believes that the population structure will be interfered hence, creating an avenue, which population ageing can take place.
Gruescu (2007) also posits that it is a general trend that when people get educated, more end up entering to their workforce, which also consumes time. As such, most people end up not settling early in marriage. This makes them have few children, as many will want to reap the fruits of their hard work. Therefore, they will give birth to two or three children and resume to their workforce if not careers. This move ends up creating a wide generation gap between then the youth and the elderly thus, causing population ageing.
Consequently, research by Bosworth and Gary (1998) indicate that in Germany, there is improved medicals amenities and facilities, which render satisfying services to the Germans. As such, most of the Germans have the ease to access medical services, which improves their livelihood thus making the elderly to live longer that they could not. This interferes with the generational structure since there will be a good number of the elderly. To some considerable degree, Bosworth and Gary (1998) suggest that the improved medical services interfere with the generation structure by increasing life expectancy thus, causing population ageing.
In Germany, the decline in fertility rates and rising in life expectancy are the fundamental reasons for population ageing. Most Germans concentrate on building their careers and ending up settling in marriage when they are old then, their likelihood to given birth are low. Due to improved medical amenities and services in Germany, most people, especially the elderly, live longer than expected. Based on the fact that decline in fertility rates and rising life expectancy have direct effects on the generational structure, it follows that these two reasons do lead to population ageing.
Bosworth, Barry, and Gary T. Burtless. Ageing Societies The Global Dimension. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998.
Christensen, Kaare, Gabriele Doblhammer, Roland Rau, and James W. Vaupel. “Ageing populations: the challenges ahead.” The Lancet 374, no. 9696 (2009): 1196-1208. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(09)61460-4.
Gruescu, Sandra. Population Ageing and Economic Growth Education Policy and Family Policy in a Model of Endogenous Growth. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag, 2007.
Rotkirch, Anna. “Whither the Child? Causes and Consequences of Low Fertility.” Population Studies 68, no. 2 (2014): 239-241. doi:10.1080/00324728.2014.902186
- Barry Bosworth, and Burtless Gary T., Aging Societies The Global Dimension, (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998), 36. ↑
- Anna Rotkirch, “Whither the Child? Causes and Consequences of Low Fertility” Population Studies 68, no. 2 (2014): 239-241. doi:10.1080/00324728.2014.902186. ↑
- Sandra Gruescu, Population Ageing and Economic Growth Education Policy and Family Policy in a Model of Endogenous Growth, (Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag, 2007), 78. ↑
- Barry Bosworth, and Burtless Gary T., Aging Societies The Global Dimension, (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998), 148. ↑