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Essay on Signs, Symptoms and Pathophysiology of Stroke, Hypertension, renal failure, Anemia, Sleep Apnea

In the contemporary society, stroke is a deadly disease. It happens when there is poor blood flow of blood in the brain leading to the death of brain cells. Two types of stroke occur due to bleeding and lack of blood flow in the brain at large. This paper in this page will discuss the symptoms, signs and pathophysiological of stroke which includes the inability to feel that is numbness, trouble in understanding and speaking, loss of vision on one side of the eye, and severe headache. The above signs and symptoms occur because the brain is not in a position to function properly since its cells are dead.

It is undisputable that the inability to feel or move is a sign of stroke. The failure to feel is known as the numbness or paralysis of a particular part of the body. One can quickly develop weakness in his arms or legs, and majorly one side of the body is always affected in most patients. A good example is that the patient is always advised to raise both arms at the same time over his or her head. If one arm starts to fall, then the patient might be having a stroke. Consequently, one can lose sight in his visions. It is a symptom of stroke because the patient’s vision may be blackened or blurred in both or one side of the eye (McManus 2008).

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In addition to the symptoms in the context, severe headache is also a sign of stroke at large. It occurs suddenly and severe accompanied by dizziness, unconsciousness, and vomiting. When one tends to experience such scenarios, then he or she should consult a doctor for immediate treatment. On the other hand, one experiences troubles in speaking and understanding what his or her colleague is saying to him. These patients lack the coordination triggered in their brain so that they can talk back and understand others. The lack of coordination in the brain is due to brain bleeding or poor blood flow in the brain thus leading to dead cells in the brain causing the stroke (McManus 2008).

Signs, symptoms, and pathophysiology of renal failure

Renal failure in this context is also known as the kidney failure. It is a medical condition that creates a major concern for our lives today. Kidney failure is whereby the kidney fails to filter metabolic waste from the human blood at large hence causing kidney disorder. There are various symptoms and signs of renal failure, they include, fatigue, shortness of breath, one feels weak and dizzy, getting up the night to make urine and swelling of hands or feet among others. First fatigue is the primary symptom of renal failure because it shows the kidney tends to make less erythropoietin hormone that makes red blood cells that carry oxygen at large. With less oxygen carried in the red blood cells, the patient muscles tend to tire fast thus causing fatigue. Moreover, shortness of breath is related to kidney failure due to less oxygen-carrying red blood cells. Another severe symptom is getting up late to make urine especially in the night because kidneys make urine and when they fail the patient can often urinate in greater amounts.

Signs, symptoms, and pathophysiology of Hypertension

In our contemporary world today, hypertension also known as high blood pressure is a deadly disease because most of the people in the society are not aware of it. People in most cases, only know that they have blood pressure and the only way to know ones blood pressure is through regular checkup. There are various signs and symptoms of hypertension, they include, severe headache, chest pain, and difficulty in breathing, vision problems, irregular heartbeat, and nose bleeding among others. It is undisputed that a severe headache is a symptom of hypertension at large because it is always accompanied by nose bleeding. Hypertensive crisis as considered by the medics in our world today can be the other sources of high blood pressure at large. Chest pain this context is also associated with hypertension. Chest pain is accompanied by difficulty in breathing due to high blood pressure. High blood pressure, in this case, might be high to bring out these symptoms at large hence perceived as a deadly disease in the contemporary society.

Signs, symptoms, and pathophysiology of Anemia

Based on logistics, anemia is the lack of iron in the body that leads to the decrease of red blood cells. Iron in the body is used to produce red blood cells, and when one is considered anemic, then he or she lacks iron that helps carry and store oxygen in the blood. Signs and symptoms of anemia vary due to the type of anemia one can have, but there are specific symptoms of the common type, which include, pale skin, fatigue and loss of energy, dizziness, shortness of breath and headache, and insomnia among others. First, fatigue and loss of energy as a symptom or sign of anemia is caused due to the less oxygen pumped into the patient’s body. Lack of iron in this case that generates red blood cells is insufficient hence oxygen generation is limited in the body leading to constant fatigue, dizziness, and energy loss at large. It is undisputed that pale skin is a sign of being anemic because one is not in a position to see the flow of blood in the patient’s body due to lack of iron that facilitates the making of red blood cells which causes anemia.

Signs, symptoms, and pathophysiology of Sleep Apnea

It is a sleep disorder that is also not taken seriously by those experiencing it. It involves an interruption in breathing during one’s sleep. They are majorly short breathing pauses in a patient’s sleep, and often they are not aware of it. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea that leads to snoring in most cases. Snoring in most cases is the major sign of sleep apnea in this context. Loud snoring would involve pauses in the soft tissue when the back of the throat relaxes in the patient’s sleep and blocks the air from passing through the windpipe. Another sign and symptom of this disease are snorting, choking, and gasping during sleep. The gasping during sleep shows how one struggles to breath large amounts of air through the mouth thus leading to choking because sometimes the windpipe is blocked. Consequently, pauses in breathing also play a significant role as a symptom of sleep apnea at large (Kooser 2007).

Essay on Signs, Symptoms and Pathophysiology of Stroke, Hypertension, renal failure, Anemia, Sleep Apnea


Kooser, T. (2007). Sleep Apnea. Great River Review, (47), 18.

McManus, I. C. (2008). Charles Dickens: A Neglected Diagnosis. Dickens Quarterly, 25(2), 98-106.

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