Spain’s Healthcare System Essay
Spain’s healthcare standards rank among the top ten in the world, according to a study done by the Healthcare Access and Quality Index (Lancet, 2017). The number of citizens who use private health insurance stands at nineteen percent of the population, which they use as an alternative to public health or to supplement. In Europe, Spain has the highest figures of life expectancy.
1. Impact on the vulnerable population.
The relationship between equity and efficiency in the Spanish healthcare system has been described as being lop-sided to the side of equity. Many of these issues regard over-use of unproductive services which are offered for free to the citizens or under-utilization of highly efficient services, rather than extreme differences in access to medical care linked to age, sex, or the socio-economic status. Spain has systems in place which ensure effects of variances in the social gradient do not become embedded in the healthcare system.
Vulnerable groups such as immigrants and gypsies make up a significant population of Spain. They have implemented strategies to adapt to new immigrants, and there has also been a positive assessment of the health status of gypsies, in particular, those of age 55 and above. Mental health status figures show a figure of 21% of the population aged 16 and above is at risk of mental illness. The statistics grow in regards to age-group, with average values of 32% in people aged over 75 years (Porthé et al., 2017).
2. Women’s Health and Maternal Healthcare.
Neonatal mortality has dropped drastically, and so did the rates of maternal mortality. In regards to pregnancies, there is a high prevalence in women of age 35 and above, which has led Spain to enhance its surveillance on maternal mortality rates, while also introducing strategies for care in standard delivery. Abortion laws have also been proposed as guidelines to legalize the process under particular circumstances. Studies have shown that abortion cases have increased in the age-group between 20-25, with the rates below 19 years of age also growing (Carmen, Giner-Monfort, Grau-Muñoz, & Bisbal-Sanz, 2013).
3. Disease management of communicable and non-communicable diseases.
Spain like any other country has developed ways of dealing with chronic diseases also communicable diseases. 90% of deaths in Spain are as a result of chronic diseases. There are programs such as the Complex Care Plan, utilized in delivering specific care to patients with chronic or infectious diseases. Conditions like HIV/AIDS have a prevalence rate of 3.5 as compared to 8.0 in Portugal (Guionnet et al., 2014).
4. The theory of practice of health promotion
Health promotion activities in Spain, which aim to increase the control of health are not that evident. Spain lacks a body to evaluate the process and the results from population intervention. The country needs to create such an organization to ensure it can analyze any results while transferring and implementing any interventions. They should also undertake collaborations within the healthcare system (Enrique, García-Armesto, Abadía-Taira, Durán, & Hernández-Quevedo, 2010).
5. Behavioral and lifestyle factors that affect health and illness
Various individual factors lead to different illnesses and diseases; in Spain, these factors range from social to physical. Studies conducted have shown that Spain is one of the least active countries in comparison to other European countries, while regarding socioeconomic factors, disparities are very evident. The number of people who viewed their health as vital depended on their lifestyle choices. Economic levels also affect how a person perceives their health in Spain.
Spain has systems which ensure good results in various aspects of the healthcare system, including quality of care and even regarding the population. In comparison to the amount of GDP used in other countries in Europe, the application is at 8.5%, which is below the continent’s average, which means there is value for money. In comparison to the United States, Spain’s healthcare is mostly provided by the government through its universal coverage, which doesn’t charge its citizens, but in the US private expenditure on healthcare is at almost 65 percent which means healthcare is provided by practitioners more than government institutions. Regarding the total quality of health care system, Spain’s is 74.54% while the US’ is at 69.03. This means that the healthcare in Spain is more efficient because the cost of healthcare is lower in the US citizen ranked at 45% while Spain is ranked 85.87%.
References: Spain’s Healthcare System Essay
Carmen, B.-V. R.-P.-M., Giner-Monfort, J., Grau-Muñoz, A., & Bisbal-Sanz, J. (2013). Perceptions and experiences of parenthood and maternal health care among women living in Spain: A qualitative study. Midwifery, 332-337.
Coker, R., Atun, R., & McKee, M. (2013). Health Systems and the Challenge of Communicable Disease: Experiences from Europe and Latin America. European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies Series, 6-288.
Enrique, B.-D., García-Armesto, S., Abadía-Taira, M. B., Durán, A., & Hernández-Quevedo, C. (2010). Spain: Health system review. Health Systems in Transition, 1-330.
Guionnet, A., Navaza, B., Fuente, B. P., Pérez-Elías, M. J., Dronda, F., López-Vélez, R., & Pérez-Molina, J. A. (2014). Immigrant women living with HIV in Spain: a qualitative approach to encourage medical follow-up. Bio Med Central, 25-117.
Haro, J. M., Tyrovolas, S., Garin, N., Diaz-Torne, C., Carmona, L., Sanchez-Riera, L., . . . Murray, C. J. (2014). The burden of disease in Spain: results from the global charge of disease study. BMC Medicine, 30-236.
Lancet, T. (2017). Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015: a novel analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet, 231-266.
Porthé, V., Vargas, I., Ronda, E., Malmusi, D., Bosch, L., & Vázquez, M. L. (2017). Has the quality of health care for the immigrant population changed during the economic crisis in Spain? Opinions of health professionals and immigrant users. Gaceta Sanitaria, 51-63. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2017.03.010