Statistics Research Paper
Statistics Research Paper Writing Guide + Examples
A statistics research paper is similar to a survey research paper in many ways. Both papers focus on collecting information about some specific topic using surveys. They both use statistical methods to collect, analyze and present this information..
To explain how they are different, consider two types of statistics: means and relationships; it may be easier to understand this by first explaining how they’re related: The mean is (most often) calculated through addition while relationships are typically found through multiplication. This also explains why you calculate means at the beginning of a statistics project (before any relationship has been discovered), while responsibility for calculating relationships typically falls to the end of a statistics project. The next time you’re in class, try to count how many times your instructor mentions “mean,” as opposed to “relationship!”
A statistics paper is based on a relationship between two or more variables (often referred to as independent and dependent variables). You can think of these variables almost like social security numbers—each person has one SSN that distinguishes them from all other people; similarly, each data point (a unique combination of values for an independent variable) has its own set of values for one or more variables..
An example: if we are interested in knowing whether there is a relationship between hospital beds per 1,000 residents and the reading scores of senior citizens, defined as ages 65 and over, in a given city or country, then we must gather data on both variables. We will need to find out how many hospital beds there are per 1,000 residents for each of the cities or countries represented in our sample..
This type of research paper writing can also be based only on means (instead of relationships). Consider two more examples: If a psychologist wants to see if age is related to memory loss, but doesn’t care whether this relationship is positive or negative (i.e., she simply wants to know if older people tend to have better memories than younger people), all she cares about are the mean memory scores for groups defined by age.
On the other hand, if the psychologist wants to know if older people tend to have better memories than younger, but she also cares about how large this difference is (e.g.. their mean score is 10 points higher), then her research project will include calculations of relationships between age and memory scores.
How to write a statistics research paper
Getting started with your research paper is a difficult task. All you need to do is hop online and search for some information on how to write it but what are the necessary steps?
You can learn them by following this short guide:
Start by proper research:
Write an introduction, transition into your thesis statement, and finish off with a conclusion of sorts – this structure will not only help you produce a strong foundation, but also provide the reader with clues regarding where you’re going in particular when writing statistics essay.
The introduction should be broad enough to capture attention of the reader and yet narrow enough to indicate that it’s about something specific.
It can also serve as a springboard for later argumentation or present the central idea.
What makes a good research paper introduction, however, is a little bit of mystery or enigma that makes the reader go “I want to know more about this, why do they think so?”
Finding journal articles on statistics research paper
The next step is to locate journals and magazines. It’s best if you have some knowledge about what kind of scholarly work this will entail – statistics papers are not often found in tabloids but rather in peer reviewed sources.
If you’re struggling with compiling a comprehensive essay list of online sources, try asking for help at your school’s librarian or library.
There are also other options such as using one of those article databases which contain articles from all over the world and sorted by category: perhaps there’s something there – it doesn’t even have to be a journal article.
There are also books out there that have statistics papers in them – in case you want to go a little bit old school.
Writing body paragraphs
The next step is writing your body or main part of the statistics research paper, so it makes sense first to decide on what kind of statistical test you’ll use and then look up relevant information about it.
Use this information as the building blocks for paragraphs going into details: why did the statistician choose it?
What are some common criticisms/counterpoints?
Which should be supported by specific examples and further justification of why they’re relevant. The next section will deal with interpreting numerical results and drawing conclusions – this involves taking those numbers and making something meaningful out of them beyond just comparing them to each other. It could be a lot to take in, so it’s best if you break this down and look up specific information for different parts of it.
Write your paper
Now that you have collected all the necessary material, statistics research paper writing shouldn’t be hard – remember not to simply copy/paste the information from somewhere else without citing your sources and making sure that your work is better than what you’ve copied.
The final step will involve polishing and proofreading your work – make sure there are no mistakes when submitting or publishing online.
You should always use correct grammar, spelling and punctuation as well as consistent referencing/citation style (MLA, APA etc.).
And there you have it: statistics research paper.
Write perfect conclusion
The next step is writing your conclusions. You’ve already done a lot of the work for this during the body part so it shouldn’t be anything out of the ordinary.
Make sure you reiterate what you said in the introduction and sometimes add some more commentary on particular things that could/can serve as relevant examples for future research or topics to investigate further.
One thing which is especially important here is presenting results/data clearly and making them easy to understand even for people who aren’t statisticians themselves. This can help greatly with potential critics.
A statistics research paper, then, should include a summary of the methods used to gather and analyze your data (usually presented in sections 2 & 3), followed by your findings (usually presented in sections 4 – 7). All of this material must be contained within a single document.
Your paper is organized differently from other types of research reports. The most common order has been presented here so as to make it easier for you to adapt these sections back into your own planning:
- Introduction – this section is often called the “literature review” and it contains a brief overview of your topic, including noteworthy definitions and facts. This discussion usually includes information regarding the shortcomings of prior research in this area, if there are any..
- Methodology – this section includes a description of how you obtained (gathered) your data; examples would include surveys, interviews or usage logs..
- Data – if you did not collect data yourself, then consider presenting a chart from an existing source that will help readers understand your results..
- Summary & Discussion – here you’ll present the most important numerical findings related to your study..
- Conclusions & Recommendations – be sure to make recommendations based on your findings.
- References – provide a list of pertinent sources from which you obtained information and ideas..
- Data Analysis – this section is usually presented as a subsection of the data section. Here you’ll report how you analyzed your data, including all calculations and inferences..
- Appendices – this is an optional section in which to place tables that provide detailed information about your study..
- Acknowledgments – it’s always nice to thank someone for their help (in this case, by providing a list of everyone who contributed to the project)..
- Related Reading – refer interested parties to other journal articles, books or websites related to this material for further reading..
- Tables – these are necessary in order to present your results. They also summarize large amounts of information in a small amount of space..
- Figures – Graphs and charts provide data in an easy to understand manner.
- Graphs – A graph is a visual representation of data..
- Charts – A chart is a graphical display of numerical comparisons. It can be useful for showing the relationship between two or more things, such as trends over time.
- List Of Participants – this is a list of everyone who helped you with the project.
- Certificate Of Approval – every department or institute has its own rules about what must be included here: usually some statement saying that your research followed ethical standards and was approved by the proper authorities..
Note: The examples provided above are not intended to represent all possible formats that could be used but rather they provide information about what most researchers tend to do.
Also note: Depending on your course or assignment, you might be required to use certain formatting styles or these requirements may vary from one class or professor to another. But it’s always important to know how and when to cite (reference) sources within your paper.
The last few sections are optional, depending on the format guidelines established by the instructor for your assignment..
Good luck with this paper!
Statistics research paper outline template
The following is the general format and structure of a statistics research paper: introduction/background, problem statement, objectives, materials & methods, results and discussion sections. Use this table of contents as an outline when you are beginning your research.
As you begin each portion make sure to refer back to this outline.
- Problem statement
- Materials and methods discussion & results
- Data analysis plan/approach
- Discussion (use subheadings if necessary)
- Conclusion and recommendations
Writing an idealized outline for a statistics research paper. Each of the research paper outline item above has been discussed below in depth.
- Introduction – background information about the topic, relevance of particular issue, significance of data to the problem; 1-2 paragraphs
- Problem statement – state what problem was studied and why – this must be in your initial set of literature review sources (statistics research paper citations); 1 paragraph. State briefly how it relates to overall field or area of study;
- Objectives – list primary and secondary objectives that you were trying to achieve during the course of writing a stats paper; separate each with period. Do not use more than 2 levels of sub-objectives when doing outline.
- Materials & methods – explain your data gathering process (for collection of raw statistics), how you set up the experiment when doing statistical hypothesis testing, and any other relevant information concerning the creation of a statistics research paper; 2-3 paragraphs
- Data analysis/results – state how you analyzed data collected (tables, graphs, charts etc.) that is not available in published works or articles for stats research paper; 2-3 paragraphs
- Discussion section – this is important! Don’t forget to discuss results presented in data analysis/results section as well as recap your problem statement; 3-4 paragraphs. Discussion of main results is an important part of a research paper; don’t forget to include one! Defend your hypothesis (if applicable) and describe its importance. Also compare with other studies done on similar topics; present similarities & differences in data collection methods & outcome measurements used vs others. Take time to explain how each area is different.
- Conclusion & recommendations: In your research paper conclusion, reiterate the significance of your hypothesis; based on results it is either confirmed, disconfirmed or weakened/strengthened. Also indicate what you would like to do now that this is done (if not requested in guidelines) – future research, more studies should be done using same methods etc. Give an indication of how long each study might take and who can benefit from its findings. If needed you also have space here to discuss any recommendations for future work (suggestions are good but don’t sound too pushy).
- References: The references section is usually under a separate heading that includes title & author of the paper/book, date of publication and page numbers. In your bibliography, various books & articles, including editions & versions if needed, that were used as sources when doing your research paper or study (will likely contain other authors’ articles you read).
- Appendices – tables, figures, charts, appendices with raw data, etc. The appendices – anything else that was created during statistical analysis while writing stats research paper can go here (you may need extra sheets of paper if there are too many graphs etc. to include as part of the main text)
Statistics research writing tips:
Make sure to explain your purpose for the study and also give some background information on the problem. This background information should be used as a way of showing why your statistics research paper is important and significant to your field. Here are some ways to say it without coming off as too boring or unprofessional. They’re quite general but good enough:
- “This paper will investigate…”
- “The objective of this study is…”
- “It is not found if…”
- “There have been a few studies concerning..”
- “As there has been much debate about…”
- “No prior study exists that.”
State what your hypothesis was; how you came up with it and any problems you faced trying to prove it.
- Now, state your results and findings, including the statistical analysis if necessary (such as significance or not).
- Write only what was found using charts or graphs, tables, and numbers that back up your claims about the study.
- Check all your spelling and grammar again.
- Pay attention to commas, semicolons and spaces.
- Use a spell checker if possible or ask someone else to proof-read it for you.
This is how simple it is to write a great statistics term paper or research paper. If you get stuck, you can ask for research paper writing help from expert tutors.
Statistics Research Topics
Wondering what to write a research paper on statistics and probability about?
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis and interpretation or data.
Statistics is used in many fields, including natural science, social sciences, business and engineering.
A statistician collects, computes and analyzes numerical data to summarize information.
If you are looking for a statistics research paper topic ideas you’ve come to the right place!
Check out this list below of major research paper topics in statistics and probability for college students:
Statistics Research Topics – Probability
Description: Probability deals with events that have uncertain outcomes.. It involves mathematical calculations using formulas involving random variables such as probability density functions (pdf), probability distributions , expected values or moments E(x), variance V(X).. In other words a probability distribution summarizes all possible outcomes in terms of probabilities based on theoretical assumptions or data collection.
A specific probability distribution can be constructed from a collection of frequencies of events in the long run.
This is known as the Central Limit Theorem which says that if we take averages of random variables over very large numbers, their distributions will approach normal (i.e. bell-shaped curve) regardless of the shape or other details about them.
It’s also a probability measure used to find out how likely it is that one event A happens given that another event B happened first.
Statistics Research Topics – Descriptive statistics
Description: descriptive statistics collects and interprets numerical data in terms of distributions, graphs, measures and relationships among variables.
For example mean, median and mode are measures of central tendency and dispersion.
On the other hand, standard deviation measures dispersion. This is a statistical technique used to summarize data in terms of its most important features.
Descriptive statistics is also necessary for analyzing real-life situations.
It provides information that’s useful for making business decisions.
Statistics Research Topics – Testing significance of relationships (correlation)
Description: correlation deals with measuring the strength , direction and stability of relationship between two or more variables.
A positive correlation indicates that as the value of one variable increases , so does the value of another variable.
For example, if employees in a call center perform better at work when they are seated close to their supervisors, this would be an example of positive correlation because it that shows that as one variable (seating arrangements) increases the other variable (performance) also increases.
On the other hand, if two variables are negatively correlated which means that as one variable increases, the other decreases.
For example, if some countries have a high GDP per capita and low population growth rate then this would be an example of negative correlation because it shows that as your income rises your population falls.
Statistics – Research Paper – Sampling
Description: sampling deals with determining appropriate sample size s for a study based on specific requirements.
Like when you decide to choose five people out of hundreds in order to conduct surveys or research studies.
The main idea behind sampling is to reduce information loss by minimizing unnecessary information.
Also, sampling is also used to make inferences about a population or to study it indirectly by studying a representative sample (group of people) which is expected to be close enough.
Statistics Research Topics – Hypothesis testing
Description: hypothesis testing deals with conducting statistical tests that determine whether or not the data provided supports certain claim or statistically significant conclusion.
For example if you want to test whether the data shows that girls earn higher grades than boys in math classes.
This would be done using a formal statistical procedure called the t-test. By calculating two values and comparing them we can see if there’s a difference between their means.
If it turns out that one group has an average significantly different from the other, then it’s considered significant.
Statistics – Research Paper – Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Description: analysis of variance (ANOVA) deals with comparing means between at least three or more groups to determine if they’re similar within a certain margin.
It can also be used for determining whether an overall mean is different than another overall mean across several groups.
ANOVA helps determine if there are significant differences in values that would affect results and conclusions drawn from two or more related populations.
For example, you want to know if there’s any difference among four brands of your favorite soft drink so you conduct an experiment by taking 10 people who all like this particular kind and have them taste each of the brands and see which one they prefer.
Statistics Research Topics – Confidence intervals
Description: confidence intervals are used when conducting statistical studies dealing with hypothesis testing which involves making observations about a population based on data collected.
It is essentially ranges of values meant to indicate variability between certain estimated parameters within a group or group of people.
It helps shows how much uncertainty exists within estimates for a single population parameter.
This is done by adding and subtracting margins of error to the original estimation..
Statistics – Research Topics – Non-parametric tests
Description: non-parametric tests are used when conducting statistical studies to make comparisons between two or more samples using data that’s not completely numerical.
This is usually done by converting scores (e.g., number grades, percentages) into ranks so that you’re able to compare between them easier.
Some examples of these tests includes 1 rank sum test, sign test etc…
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