Analysis Essay on Theory of Evolution
Human origin, history, function and interaction of human beings with other life forms play a crucial role in understanding the future of human race that can explained by evolutionary theory. Various applications of evolutionary theory such as from breeding to the development of vaccines, endangered species and development and management of biological reserves that affect the well being of human race. According to some biologists who believe in god, accept the findings of biological science as a feature of creation, and the evidence from the fossils, a comparison of anatomy, physiology and DNA of different organisms cannot be undermined. However, religious doubts and views of Darwin about the way of the God with the world are matter of debate. The significant feature that can be attributed to creation is the complexity of nature, and creation means to recognize the fact that biological structures as well as processes have integrity and descriptive frameworks of their own. As per plan of creation, there is a purpose for the evolutionary process, as some of the biological processes that drive evolution depend on chance. Evolutionary changes has significant implications on population dynamics, and dynamics of evolution describe the populations change in course of time as they are subjected to spontaneous mutations, random events and selection. (Nowak,2006). Selection acts on various phenotypes and this results in the change in the composition of population, in addition to this, environmental change has capacity to alter these pressures of selection as time passes.(Ashcroft et.al,2014). Many mechanisms influence the dynamics of evolution in a combination of various species. Species associated with diverse communities may have limitations for resources due to competition that may result in the reduction of size of populations due to which the rate of beneficial mutations and the adaptation of species to the novel environment. In this situation, species in communities must have the ability to adapt in the new environment since in isolation the adaptation rate would be decreased. In this model, the species that are adapted previously increase at the cost of species that are well adapted, there is a reduction in the average amount of surviving species in comparison to the response of same species in monoculture. (de Mazancourt,2008). There may be a exchange between the adaptation to biotic and abiotic components of the environment and these interchanges may result from the production of adaptations involved in species interactions such as defenses. It is difficult to predict even within a single population as population adapts to abiotic environment to another species with which it interacts. Evo devo helped to understand the dramatic advances in the developmental processes that furnish the patterns that explain the diversification of evolution. Evolvability, specifically the capability of the system of development to evolve, and to produce variation in the form of natural selection in order to screen, is the key focus of Evo devo.
Samuel Butler’s doubts on evolution
Samuel Butler’s views seem to accept the theory of evolution, but expressed doubts on the natural selection put forth by Darwin. Samuel in his book Evolution,old and new published in 1879, he criticised Darwin for borrowing the theories of evolution proposed by Lamrack, Buffon and Erasmus without providing them a little credit. Butler clearly recognised the complexity of evolution that later questioned the meaning of life. In addition to recognising the need for more nuanced treatment for evolution, that cannot explain life through science or the theory of special creation, he disclaimed any special knowledge or expertise on the topic. The speculative boldness of not considered irrational but there is a clarity on the idea of natural phenomenon. The fundamental ideas refer to most of the salient aspects of nature like evolution which are extremely vague and with this idea are attached some vague ideas such as heredity, variation, emergence and others that float on seemingly bottomless sea. the nature. However, scientists have gathered a lot of evidence showing that world is evolutionary, and Butler confirms to this dynamic feature of nature as he maintains that no form of organisation has immunity to variation. His sense of evolution is an indirect criticism of a collective mode of thought that endorsed the dubious interpretation of the vague idea. The highly remarkable imperviousness of Darwin that is criticised over estimates the wisdom of experts of science.
All organisms occur with many other species, that results in dynamics of evolution and the recent theories predict that interaction of species in diverse systems can influence the way the component species evolve in response to environmental change. The evolution has consequences for the functioning of ecosystem. It is quite challenging to understand how natural selection drives evolution and most of the studies on adaptation concentrate on a single factor of environment like temperature that influences evolution with a single species. However, most of the species are embedded within communities and communities contain many species that interact with each other and also interact with the physical environment in which they live. The impact of biodiversity is clearly detrimental to many animals and new advances in technologies have enabled to study the evolutionary and adaptive processes and the relative influence of humans on the flora and fauna.
de Mazancourt C, Johnson E, Barraclough T. G (2008) Biodiversity inhibits species’ evolutionary responses to changing environments. Ecol Lett 11: 380–388.C. de MazancourtE. JohnsonT. G. Barraclough2008Biodiversity inhibits species’ evolutionary responses to changing environments.Ecol Lett11380388
Nowak MA (2006)Evolutionary dynamics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Peter Ashcroft, Philipp M. Altrock, Tobias Galla(2014) Fixation in finite populations evolving in fluctuating environments. J. R. Soc. Interface 2014 11 20140663