Chemistry Lab "Titration of Commercial White Vinegar" 10 Questions and table to fill in from video

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Arizona Western College Chemistry Lab Arizona Western College Chemistry Lab Name _________________________ Date _____________________ Partner _________________________ Class # and section __________ Titration of Commercial White Vinegar Question 1) Molecular Formula of acidic acid: _CH_3COOH Molar mass of acidic acid ________60.052 g/mol___________ Question 2) The balanced equation for the reaction of sodium hydroxide and acetic acid: CH_3COOH + NaOH -------- H_2_O + CH_3COO^-Na^+ Data Table (use data from embedded video): I filled in from the below information from the video. However did provide the link to the video incase additional information is needed for questions 3-7 M of NaOH Titrant: _______________ Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Acetic acid volume, mL 20.00 mL 20.00 mL 20.00 mL NaOH Final Volume, mL 35.45 mL 34.30 mL 33.80 mL NaOH Initial Volume, mL 0.60 mL 0.85 mL 0.45 mL NaOH Titrant Delivered, mL 34.85 mL 33.45 mL 33.35 mL NaOH Titrant Delivered, L 0.03485 L 0.03345 L 0.03335 L Trial 1= .87 M, Trial 2= .84 M, Trial 3= .83 M Note: Delivered = Final – Initial A trial may be omitted from calculations if there was a known experimental error. Are any trials being omitted and under what justification? (note: dislike of a number is not a valid justification for omission) Average volume of acetic acid used (mL): ____________ Average volume of NaOH used (L): _______________ Questions: 3. How many moles of NaOH are in the delivered titrant on average? 4. How many moles of acetic acid are in the vinegar on average? 5. What is the molarity (M) of the acetic acid in the vinegar on average? 6. What is the mass of the acetic acid in the vinegar on average? 7. What is the percent (% w/v) of the acetic acid in the vinegar on average? 8. What is the molarity, M, of a NaHCO3 solution that has 4.57 g dissolved in 489 mL of solution. M = 9. How many moles of tantalum (V) chloride should be dissolved in 478 mL of solution to give a concentration of 8.70 x 10-3 M? moles = 10. We need to prepare a 0.0021 M solution of Cs2SO4. But there are only 80.7 g of the chemical available. What is the maximum volume that can be prepared? volume = 1 Revised 3-4-2013 1 Revised 3-4-2013 1 Revised 3-4-2013

Partner _________________________ Class # and section __________ Titration of Commercial White Vinegar In today’s lab we determine the molarity (M) and then the percentage (%) of acetic acid. Acetic acid, abbreviated HOAc, is the active ingredient in the vinegar we buy in a grocery store. The structural formula, showing the arrangements of the atoms, is shown below. Write the molecular formula and molar mass in question 1 on the answer sheet. Molecular Formula of acidic acid: ____________ Molar mass of acidic acid ________ Molarity, M , is the concentration of a solution and has units of moles dissolved per liter of solution, aka moles/L. Molarity is calculated from the equation shown below. If we know the number of moles and the number of liters, we can calculate molarity. Also, if we know the number of liters and the molarity, we can calculate the number of moles present; and if we know the number of moles and the molarity, we can calculate the number of liters. Molarity (M) = moles/liters Percent, %, is also the concentration of a solution and has units of grams or milliliters dissolved per gram or milliliter of solution times one hundred. When denoted properly percents will be followed by and indicator as to what two units are involved. A “w” denotes weight or mass and a “v” denotes volume. % w/w = grams/grams x100% % w/v = grams/mL x100% % v/v = mL /mLx100% The titration uses the reaction between sodium hydroxide, a base, and acetic acid, you guessed it...an acid, to form water and sodium acetate, a salt. Write the balanced chemical equation in question 2 on the answer sheet. Arizona Western College Chemistry Lab 2 Revised 3-4-2013 We are using several laboratory techniques in this lab procedure: • Titration: Reacting equal amounts of chemicals by measuring the volume of solution. In this experiment we add a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to a flask containing acetic acid and a small amount of phenolphthalein. The NaOH first reacts with the acetic acid. At the end point of this reaction (i.e. all acetic acid has been reacted), NaOH and phenolphthalein react to form a light pink color that goes to magenta as you add more NaOH. This indicates equal amounts of NaOH and acetic acid have reacted. Thus phenolphthalein is called an end-point indicator (see below). • End-Point Indicator: Chemical, such as phenolphthalein, that reacts with the first excess of the titrant to produce a visible color change. • Titrant: Solution added from a buret to measure the desired chemical and whose volume is the measurement. • Buret: A precisely manufactured glass tube with volume graduations and with a stopcock at the bottom. Note that numbers read from zero (0) at the top to the maximum value at the bottom. The volume of titrant delivered is measured by reading the levels before and after the titration. Measurements are interpolated (estimated between the lines) using the bottom of the meniscus to the nearest 0.01 mL. • Parallax Error: When reading the buret or filling the volumetric flask, adjust your head or the glassware position so that the meniscus is eye level. Otherwise there is an error in the measurement or the dilution volume. Check this on your buret. Correct Buret reading: __________ Buret reading with eye above the meniscus: __________ • Standard Solution: Solution of known concentration that can be used as a reference. Arizona Western College Chemistry Lab 3 Revised 3-4-2013 Waste Disposal: • Put leftover sodium hydroxide titrant in the container labeled for it on the table at the front of the lab. This will be recycled in future labs. • All other reagents may be discarded down the drain. Procedure: 1. Clean a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask and 50 mL buret with deionized water. 2. Rinse the 50 mL buret 3 times with a small amount of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) titrant. 3. Setup the 50 mL buret and fill, to between the 0 and 2 mL marks, with the sodium hydroxide (NaOH) titrant. 4. Dispense about 20 mL of vinegar into a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. 5. Add 2 drops of phenolphthalein (feè-nawl-tháy-leèn) indicator solution to the flask. When in acidic solutions phenolphthalein is colorless; however, in alkaline solutions phenolphthalein is pink. The structural formula for phenolphthalein is shown below. There is a carbon atom at each corner where the lines come together. 6. Read and record the initial volume of the NaOH buret to the nearest 0.01 mL in the Data Table. 7. Titrate the acetic acid by adding NaOH from the buret to the Erlenmeyer flask. Stop when the solution turns a faint pink color throughout, that stays for at least 30 seconds. (Do not let the titrant go below the last mark on the buret) The goal is to add just enough NaOH to neutralize the acetic acid; this is known as the equivalence point. Excess NaOH then reacts with the phenolphthalein changing it from colorless to pink. Pink flashes will be seen when nearing equivalence point and are due to incomplete mixing. Just past the equivalence point the pink will fade as CO2 from the air neutralizes the excess NaOH. 8. Read and record the final volume of both burets to the nearest 0.01 mL in the Data Table. (Note: use the data as presented in the embedded video.) 9. Discard the solution in the Erlenmeyer flask down the drain, rinse the Erlenmeyer with deionized water and top off burets if needed. 10. Repeat steps 6 through 12 for Trial 2 and for Trial 3. 11. Clean both burets and the Erlenmeyer flask with deionized water. 12. Answer questions 3 – 7 about the collected data. (this data is from the table that came from the youtube video 13. Answer questions 8 – 10.

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