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Code a protein What is the purpose of mRNA

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You will transcribe a strand of DNA into RNA and then translate this RNA sequence into amino acids that form a protein. Your submission will be of the original DNA strand, the transcribed RNA, and the actual protein chain of amino acids.
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Biology Special Lesson: Code a Protein Code a Protein Overview: In this activity you will transcribe a sequence of DNA into RNA and translate this sequence into the amino acids that form a protein. You will go through the process of Protein Synthesis to determine what protein is being made. The sequence is given below along with instructions for the assignment and some short discussion questions. Background Information: DNA is the genetic material in the nucleus of cells and contains the instructions for all of the processes of your body. DNA is double stranded and made of nucleotides that contain one of four bases: adenine, thymine, guanine, or cytosine. DNA is very important and therefore does not leave the nucleus. This is why mRNA is created. • Transcription - the process of copying a segment of DNA into RNA RNA is transcribed from DNA in short segments so that it can leave the nucleus. This short segment that is copied from DNA uses the same complementary nucleotides as DNA but in place of thymine it codes a nucleotide called uracil. The RNA goes through some cutting and splicing before leaving the nucleus as mRNA. The strand of mRNA now has only the coding portions spliced together. • Translation - the process of coding mRNA into amino acids that create a protein The mRNA leaves the nucleus into the cytoplasm and floats around until it connects with a ribosome. The ribosome attaches to the 5-prime end of the mRNA. The ribosome reads the mRNA in sets of 3 nucleotides called a codon. Each codon corresponds to an amino acid. As the ribosome reads a codon, tRNAs bring in the corresponding amino acid. The ribosome then attaches the amino acids in a chain as it reads the mRNA and creates a string of amino acids called a protein. There are specific codons to signal start and stop that say when a protein is complete. Assignment: You will transcribe a strand of DNA into RNA and then translate this RNA sequence into amino acids that form a protein. Your submission will be of the original DNA strand, the transcribed RNA, and the actual protein chain of amino acids. When transcribing the DNA into RNA remember to code the complementary nucleotide (with the exception of using uracil instead of thymine). When translating the protein, remember that the protein is only part of the strand. It begins at the start codon and ends at the stop, even if there are extra codons. You will use the amino acid wheel to determine which amino acid is represented by each codon. Biology Special Lesson: Code a Protein The DNA sequence is: TTC GAT TAC GGA TGC CGT GAT AAT TCG ACG GTA CCG ATT TCG GAA GCT 1. Transcribe the DNA sequence above into RNA using the correct complementary nucleotides. What would the RNA strand be? ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Using the RNA strand that you transcribed, compare each codon to the chart above and translate that into the correct amino acids to create a protein. (You may write the amino acid name or abbreviation, but do not use the letter.) What would the amino acid chain be that creates the protein? _____________________________________________________________________________ Discussion Questions: 1. What is the purpose of mRNA? 2. Why is only part of the mRNA sequence translated into amino acids? 3. Where in the cell is DNA transcribed into mRNA? 4. What nucleotide is used only in RNA to replace a certain nucleotide in DNA? 5. Where in the cell is mRNA translated into amino acids to form a protein? Codons Amino Acids Table / Public Domain Biology Special Lesson: Code a Protein Grading Rubric 4 3 2 1 Transcription/ Translation Filled out correctly and completely. Filled out completely with some incorrect. Filled out but many incorrect. Not completed or all incorrect. Discussion Questions Completely answered and correct. Completely answered but some incorrect. Some not complete, or many incorrect. Many not complete or incorrect. Overall Understanding Understanding is shown within responses. Some understanding is shown. Little understanding is shown. No understanding of concepts.
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