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Lab report on Enzymes (Biology)

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Lab report (APA style) needs a cover page, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion and literature cited. Graphs need to be included as per professor. "See the effects of enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, pH and temperature on functioning of an enzyme. Understand specificity, cofactors and reusability of an enzyme." Quoted above was some questions I did for a previous assignment which could be included in this lab report. Willing to pay more than budget if necessary. Thank you.
Additional Instructions:
Tiffany Todd General Biology 10/13/2022 1. What is the chemical reaction that lactase catalyzes? Lactase catalyzes the conversion of lactose into glucose and galactose 2. Why would having the enzyme lactase as an adult be an evolutionary advantage? It would be an advantage for the adult because they would be able to consume and digest dairy products easily without any stomach issues. Simulation Option 1: Temperature 1. Start with the initial lactose at 48 mg/dL and the pH at 7. Do not vary these parameters while testing for temperature, they are environmental controls. The temperature is in degrees Celsius. Be sure to show the instructor your method for calculating the rate of reaction for the first 10 minutes before going on. The units should be mg/dL glucose per minute (mg/dL/min). Vary the temperature by 20oC. Run each experiment 5 times (for reliability in the results.) Record the rate of reaction in the table below. The rate of reaction should be in mg/dL of glucose per minute. 0 degrees C 20 Degrees C 40 Degrees C 60 degrees C 80 Degrees C Trial 1 0 33.7 42.8 7.97 0 Trial 2 0 41 44.8 8.09 0 Trial 3 0 41.9 44.3 9.84 0 Trial 4 0 40 45.1 7.98 0 Trial 5 0 43.6 42.7 8.58 0 Mean 40.04 43.94 8.49 0 Standard Deviation 3.0890127872833 1.0051865498503 0.71008168544189 Standard Error of the Mean (SEM) 1.2610841896294 0.44953309110676 0.31755818364514 2. On the axes provided, create an appropriately labeled graph to illustrate the sample means of the five temperatures tested to within 95% confidence (i.e., sample mean ± 2 SEM). Data analysis: 1.What are the results of the simulation? What is the optimal temperature? Explain. The results of the simulation shows that the lowest temperature at 0 degrees C and highest temperature at 80 degrees Celsius had a zero rate of reaction. With the temperature at 40 degrees shows the highest rate of reaction with a mean of 43.94, 20 degrees with a mean of 40.04 and finally 60 degrees with a mean of 8.49. 2.Explain why your results of the optimal temperature of the lactase enzyme make sense for the human enzyme? Explain the results in terms of the structure and function of proteins. The normal body temperature is 37 degrees Celsius which is close to 40 degrees Celsius which is the same for proteins. Therefore, if proteins increase in temperature, they will be destroyed. Simulation Option 2: pH 1. Start with the initial lactose at 48 mg/dL and the temperature at 25 degrees Celsius. Do not vary the parameters while testing for pH, they are environmental controls. Be sure to show the instructor your method for calculating the rate of reaction for the first 10 minutes before going on. The units should be mg/dL glucose per minute (mg/dL/min). Vary by a pH of 3. Run each experiment 5 times (for reliability in the results.) Record the rate of reaction in the table below. The rate of reaction should be in mg/dL of glucose per minute. pH 1 4 7 10 13 Trial 1 0 15 41 9.22 0.39 Trial 2 0 16.4 43.2 7.38 0.40 Trial 3 0 14.9 42.8 6.92 0.44 Trial 4 0 16.6 40.8 7.34 0.44 Trial 5 0 13.9 42.4 7 0.36 mean 0 15.36 42.04 7.57 0.41 Standard Deviation 1.0091580649234 0.96664367788757 0.84366818121819 0.030724582991474 Standard Error of the Mean (SEM) 0.45130920664219 0.4322961947554 0.37729988073149 0.013740451229854 2.On the axes provide, create an appropriately labeled graph to illustrate the sample means of the five pH levels tested to within 95% confidence (i.e., sample mean ± 2 SEM). Data analysis: 1.What are the results of the simulation? What is the optimal pH? Explain? The results show that the optimal Ph is 7 which is a balanced pH. The least enzyme activity Occurred at pH 1 and 13. Explain why your results of the optimal pH of the lactase enzyme make sense for the human enzyme? Explain the results in terms of the structure and function of proteins. Because the human body relies on a balanced ph. level to function normally. A high Ph level or a very low ph level will decrease enzyme activity. Simulation Option 3: Substrate Concentration 1. Start with the pH at 7 and the temperature at 25 degrees Celsius. Do not vary these parameters while testing for the substrate concentration, they are environmental controls. Be sure to show the instructor your method for calculating the rate of reaction for the first 10 minutes before going on. The units should be mg/dL glucose per minute (mg/dL/min). Vary by 20 mg/dL of lactose. Run each experiment 5 times (for reliability in the results.) Record the rate of reaction in the table below. The rate of reaction should be in mg/ dL of glucose per minute. Substrate Concentration 10 mg/dL 30 mg/dL 50 mg/dL 70 mg/dL 90 mg/dL Trial 1 8.14 25.4 44.3 60.8 78.4 Trial 2 8.8 27.4 46.7 60.8 79.9 Trial 3 8.6 24 47.1 62.4 80.5 Trial 4 8.7 27.6 43.6 63.3 76.2 Trial 5 8.6 26.9 42.8 63.7 80 Mean 8.57 26.3 45 62.2 79 Standard Deviation 0.22648620267027 1.3676256797823 1.7052858997834 1.2181953866273 1.5658863304851 Standard Error of the Mean (SEM) 0.1012877090273 0.61162079755352 0.76262703859751 0.54479353887505 0.70028565600046 2. On the axes provided, create an appropriately labeled graph to illustrate the sample means of the five pH levels tested to within 95% confidence (i.e., sample mean ± 2 SEM). Data analysis: 1. What are the results of the simulation? What is the maximum rate of reaction for the enzyme at 25°C and at a pH of 7? Explain. The maximum rate of reaction for the enzyme at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius and a ph of 7 would be 90 mg/dl with mean of 78.9. The graph shows that a high substrate concentration increases the rate of reactions for lactase enzyme and the lower concentration decreases the rate of reaction. Explain why enzymes have a maximum rate of reaction? Explain the results in terms of the structure and function of proteins. Enzymes have maximum rate of reactions depending on change in temperature, change in concentration and a change in ph.
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