# Need the solution for an AI questionnaire (All theory)

This questionnaire consists of 8 problems which covers different topics of Artificial Intelligence. I need the solution of these problems. (pen and paper solution is also fine)

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Intro to Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving Questionnaire - Semester 1 - 2020 Page 1 of 12 Problem Solving Questionnaire Answering Instructions: Please do not use a red pen/type in red. There are 8 problems. Total marks on paper: 145 + 8 bonus marks The maximum mark you can get for the final assessment is 145 (100%). However, if you lose marks in some questions and you get the bonus marks, the bonus marks will be added to your total. Intro to Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving Questionnaire - Semester 1 - 2020 Page 2 of 12 Problem 1 – State True or False (10x1.5 = 15 marks) 1. A simple-reflex agent will maximise the expected performance measure in a partially observable environment. 2. In a deterministic environment, if you are in state S0 and you perform action A, the probability of reaching the next state S1 is 1. 3. A program implementing breadth-first search can be easily converted to depth-first search just by changing the frontier implementation from a FIFO queue to a LIFO queue. 4. Depth-first search with repeated state check can guarantee to find the optimal solution. 5. A* search will always expand fewer search nodes than uniform cost search. 6. Alpha-beta pruning with a heuristic evaluation function yields an optimal playing strategy against an optimal opponent. 7. There is a sound and complete inference algorithm for propositional logic. 8. First-order logic has more expressive power than propositional logic. 9. Partial Order Planning explores the space of plans without committing to a totally ordered sequence of actions. 10. A and B are independent if and only if P(A ∧ B) = P(A)P(B) Intro to Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving Questionnaire - Semester 1 - 2020 Page 3 of 12 Problem 2 – Multiple-choice questions (12 marks) (You can choose more than one option.) 1. Consider the maze below for the robot navigation problem, where being at either G1 or G2 satisfies the goal test. Shaded cells represent the wall. The robot can only travel north, south, east or west. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 G2 3 4 G1 Assume that MD(S1, S2) is the Manhattan Distance between two squares S1 and S2, and max[x, y] returns the biggest value of x and y, and min[x, y] returns the smallest value of x and y. Which of the following heuristic function for a square S is admissible? A. h(S) = MD(S, G1) B. h(S) = MD(S, G1) + MD(S, G2) C. h(S) = max[MD(S, G1), MD(S, G2)] D. h(S) = min[MD(S, G1), MD(S, G2)] Answer: (3 marks) 2. Which of the following statement applies to partial-order planning (POP)? A. POP produces an exact ordering of actions by applying progression planning. B. POP produces an exact ordering of actions by applying regression planning. C. POP leaves decisions about the ordering of actions as open as possible by delaying the commitment to an ordering of actions. D. POP performs a search among the possible partial plans. Answer: (3 marks) 3. Consider the Vacuum Cleaner World discussed in the lecture. If the agent does not know the geography of the environment and a room may become dirty again after being cleaned then what type of agent would best be used? A. Simple reflex agent B. Goal-based agent C. Utility-based agent with learning D. Rule-based agent with internal states. Answer: (3 marks) 4. Which of the following statements can be used to define various paradigms of Artificial Intelligence (AI)? Intro to Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving Questionnaire - Semester 1 - 2020 Page 4 of 12 A. AI as a system that acts rationally aims to pass the Turing test. B. AI as a system that thinks rationally aims to maximise the value of the performance measure. C. AI as a system that thinks like a human always follows logical reasoning. D. AI as a system that acts like a human aims to create machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people. Answer: (3 marks) Intro to Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving Questionnaire - Semester 1 - 2020 Page 5 of 12 Problem 3 – Search (30 marks) Consider the search space below, where S is the initial state and the states G1 and G2 satisfy the goal test. Arcs are labelled with the cost of traversing them; for instance, traversing from S to A costs 3. And the estimated (heuristic) cost to a goal is reported inside nodes. That is, the following heuristic function h() is used: h(A) = 12; h(B) = 10; h(C) = 13; h(D) = 8; h(E) = 5; h(F) = 3; h(G1) = 0; h(G2) = 0; h(H) = 12; h(S) = 10. (6x5 = 30 marks) For each of the following tree-based search strategies, you are given a list of options. Each option describes, using that search strategy, the goal state that is reached (if any) and the sequence of all the states associated with the expanded nodes on the search tree. When all else is being equal, nodes are expanded in alphabetical order. Please select one option that correctly describes the search strategy. Hints: (i) The sequence of expanded nodes is NOT the same as the solution. It is the nodes on your search tree that are expanded, in order, according to the search strategy. (ii) You may not always traverse directly from one node to another. For instance, you can directly traverse from B to C, but you cannot directly traverse from C to B. (iii) If you want to insert extra information to explain your answer (such as the search tree you draw), please feel free to do so. 1. Which of the following options correctly describes Breadth First Search (BFS) with repeated state check? B 10 C 13 D 8 E 5 F 3 G1 0 H 12 G2 0 S 10 A 12 9 7 3 3 4 5 1 2 5 8 14 20 3 4 8 13 8 8 13 Intro to Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving Questionnaire - Semester 1 - 2020 Page 6 of 12 (a) Goal: G1; expanded nodes: S, A, B, C, D, G1 (b) Goal: G2; expanded nodes: S, A, B, D, C, E, G2 (c) Goal: G1; expanded nodes: S, A, B, D, B, G1 (d) Goal: G1; expanded nodes: S, A, B, D, S, B, G1 (e) Goal: No goal reached; expanded nodes: S, A, S, A, …. Infinite loop (5 marks) 2. Which of the following options correctly describes Depth First Search (DFS) with repeated state check? (a) Goal: G1; expanded nodes: S, A, B, D, B, G1 (b) Goal: G2; expanded nodes: S, A, B, C, G2 (c) Goal: G2; expanded nodes: S, A, B, G2 (d) Goal: G1; expanded nodes: S, A, G1 (e) Goal: No goal reached; expanded nodes: S, A, B, A, B, …. Infinite loop (5 marks) 3. Which of the following options correctly describes Depth First Search (DFS) without repeated state check? (a) Goal: G1; expanded nodes: S, A, B, D, B, G1 (b) Goal: G2; expanded nodes: S, A, B, C, G2 (c) Goal: G1; expanded nodes: S, A, G1 (d) Goal: No goal reached; expanded nodes: S, A, B, A, B, …. Infinite loop (e) Goal: No goal reached; expanded nodes: S, A, S, A, …. Infinite loop (5 marks) 4. Which of the following options correctly describes Greedy Best First Search (GBFS) with repeated state check? (a) Goal: G2; expanded nodes: S, D, H, G2 (b) Goal: G2; expanded nodes: S, D, C, G2 (c) Goal: G2; expanded nodes: S, B, G2 (d) Goal: G1; expanded nodes: S, A, G1 (e) Goal: G1; expanded nodes: S, B, E, F, G1 (5 marks) 5. Which of the following options correctly describes Greedy Best First Search (GBFS) without repeated state check? (a) Goal: G2; expanded nodes: S, D, H, G2 (b) Goal: G2; expanded nodes: S, D, C, G2 (c) Goal: G2; expanded nodes: S, B, G2 (d) Goal: G1; expanded nodes: S, B, E, F, G1 (e) Goal: No goal reached; expanded nodes: S, D, S, D, …. Infinite loop (5 marks) 6. Which of the following options correctly describes A* with repeated state check? (a) Goal: G2; expanded nodes: S, D, H, G2 (b) Goal: G1; expanded nodes: S, D, A, B, E, F, G1 (c) Goal: G2; expanded nodes: S, B, G2 (d) Goal: G1; expanded nodes: S, B, E, F, G1 (e) Goal: G2; expanded nodes: S, A, B, G2 (5 marks) Problem 4 – Game Playing and Expected Values (15 marks) Intro to Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving Questionnaire - Semester 1 - 2020 Page 7 of 12 Consider the following game tree in which the evaluation function values are shown below each leaf node. Assume that the root node corresponds to the maximising player. That is, the first player (MAX) is trying to minimise the final score. Assume that the search always visits children left-to-right. For each of the following questions, choose one option: 1. According to minimax, the best first move for player MAX at node A is: (a) MAX moves from node A to node B (b) MAX moves from node A to node C (c) MAX moves from node A to node D (d) MAX moves from node A to node E (5 marks) 2. Using alpha-beta pruning, the following nodes will be pruned from the search tree during the search process: (a) J, L, Q, R will be pruned. (b) I, O, P, J, L, Q, R will be pruned. (c) L, Q, R will be pruned. (d) L, Q, R, N will be pruned. (e) J, N will be pruned. (f) G, J, L, Q, R, N will be pruned. (10 marks) A B C D F I H J K L O P G 8 5 4 5 9 2 9 7 Q R 7 E M N S T 6 8 3 Intro to Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving Questionnaire - Semester 1 - 2020 Page 8 of 12 Problem 5 – Propositional Logic (27 marks) 1. About the building I am inspecting we know the following:  If the building is structurally sound and the builders follow the proper construction process, then the building withstands a magnitude-5 earthquake.  The building does not withstand a magnitude-5 earthquake. Represent the above sentences in propositional logic using the following vocabulary: S for The building is structurally sound, P for The builders follow the proper construction process, and W for The building withstands a magnitude-5 earthquake. Using a truth table, can you determine the answers to the following questions: a. Is the building structurally sound? b. Do the builders follow the proper construction process? c. Is it true that the building is not structurally sound or the builders don’t follow the proper construction process? Your answer has to be Yes or No or Don’t know. For instance, if you answer Yes to question 1.a., you’ll have to demonstrate that the knowledge base entails ‘The building is structurally sound’; if you answer No to question 1.a., you’ll have to demonstrate that the knowledge base entails ‘The building is NOT structurally sound.’ Clearly indicate which rows of the table support your answer. (15 marks) Intro to Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving Questionnaire - Semester 1 - 2020 Page 9 of 12 Problem 5 (continued) 2. Decide whether each of the following sentences is valid, unsatisfiable, or neither. Verify your decisions using truth table. Clearly indicate which rows of the table support your answer. a. ¬A ⇒ ¬B b. ¬A ⇒ A c. (A∧B) ⇒ A d. (A ⇒ A) ∨ B Hint: You can use just one truth table for all three sentences. (4x3=12 marks) Intro to Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving Questionnaire - Semester 1 - 2020 Page 10 of 12 Problem 6 – First-Order Logic (16 marks) Represent the following statements in first-order logic, using the following vocabulary: Australian(x): x is an Australian Person(y): y is a person Loves(u,v): u loves v 1. Every Australian loves some person. 2. There is a person who is loved by every Australian. 3. There is an Australian who loves some person but does not love all people. 4. Every person loves exactly one person. (4+4+4+4 = 16 marks) Intro to Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving Questionnaire - Semester 1 - 2020 Page 11 of 12 Problem 7 – AI Planning (15 marks) Our agent is a robot with two hands: Hand1 and Hand2. The robot’s task is to tidy up the room by putting rubbish into the Bin and putting things at their right places. Initially, the robot is at the Door, the Rubbish and the Toy are at the Table and both hands of the robot are free. The right place for the Toy is at the Shelf. The actions available to the robot include Go from one place to another, and Grasp or Ungrasp an object. Grasping results in holding the object if the robot and object are at the same place and the robot has a free hand. One effect of grasping is that the free hand that the robot uses to grasp the object will no longer be free after grasping the object. 1. Write down the initial state description and the agent’s goals. (6 marks) 2. Write down STRIPS-style definitions of the three actions. (9 marks) Intro to Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving Questionnaire - Semester 1 - 2020 Page 12 of 12 Problem 8 – Uncertain reasoning (15 marks + 8 bonus marks) Mr James Bond takes his car to the mechanic for regular servicing. The mechanic runs a test on the car transmission. The test would return one of two values: TF or NF. If the test returns TF, it indicates that the car transmission has a major issue and needs to be replaced. If the test returns NF, it indicates that the car transmission is OK. The accuracy of the test is as follows: The probability of the test returning TF when the car transmission actually has a major issue is 0.95, and the probability of the test returning NF when the car transmission does not have any issue is 0.97. After running the test on Mr James Bond’s car, the mechanic told him that the test returns TF. According to the manufacturer of Mr James Bond’s car, at the age of his car, only 1 in 500 cars would have a major issue with the car transmission. 1. What is the probability that Mr James Bond’s car transmission has a major issue? (15 marks) 2. (Bonus question) The cost of replacing the transmission is \$2,500. If the car transmission does have a major issue and it is not replaced then it will break during driving causing the entire engine to be broken which will cost \$12,000. If Mr James Bond does not replace the transmission of his car now, what is the expected cost for him? (8 bonus marks)

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