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Research Methods in Psychology exam

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This will be a test for the subject Research Methods in Psychology. The test duration is 3 hours to complete the test. There will be 20 MCQs and 7 SAQ questions. I will provide example questions for reference. I can provide the notes and textbooks for reference.
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© OCR 2016 [601/5122/5] H567/01 Turn over Oxford Cambridge and RSA A Level Psychology H567/01 Research methods Sample Question Paper Date – Morning/Afternoon Time allowed: 2 hours You must have: • A scientific or graphical calculator • No additional materials are required for this Question Paper * 0 0 0 0 0 0 * First name Last name Centre number Candidate number INSTRUCTIONS • Use black ink. • Answer all the questions. • Write your answer to each question in the space provided. • Do not write in the bar codes. INFORMATION • The total mark for this paper is 90. • The marks for each question are shown in brackets [ ]. • Quality of extended responses will be assessed in questions marked with an asterisk (*). • This document consists of 24 pages. SP EC IM EN 2 © OCR 2016 H567/01 SECTION A: Multiple choice Answer all the questions. 1 Which is the name of a type of interview? A closed B likert C quasi D structured Your answer [1] 2 Look at the following academic reference: Piliavin, I.M., Rodin, J.A. & Piliavin, J. (1969) Good Samaritanism: An underground phenomenon? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 13. What is the error in this Harvard style reference? A the date of the study should be at the end of the reference B the page numbers are missing C the surnames of the researchers should be listed in alphabetical order D the title should give the aim of the investigation Your answer [1] 3 Which two groups were compared in Chaney et al.’s (2004) study into operant conditioning? A children being praised for using their inhaler and children being ignored when using their inhaler B children using a standard inhaler and children using a modified inhaler C children using an inhaler and children using no inhaler D children with asthma and children without asthma Your answer [1] SP EC IM EN 3 © OCR 2016 H567/01 Turn over 4 Look at the following data set from a condition where participants were timed (in seconds) completing a task in a crisis situation. {36 45 51 67 54 19 50 45 27 76 54 45} What is the range of this data set? A 45 B 47.5 C 58 D 76 Your answer [1] 5 Read the following hypothesis. H1: “Women who earn above average salaries will score significantly higher on a confidence test than women who earn below average salaries.” What is the independent variable in this hypothesis? A earnings above or below average salaries B high or low average salary C high or low score on a confidence test D women or men Your answer [1] 6 Which group of people were included as participants for Maguire’s (2000) study into the hippocampi of taxi-drivers? A females B left-handed people C people above 32 years of age D people with health problems Your answer [1] SP EC IM EN 4 © OCR 2016 H567/01 7 What is meant by the term ‘socially desirable responses’ in psychological research? A responses which are personal even if they are subjective B responses which are reliable even if they are invalid C responses which reflect the participants’ wishes even if they are unacceptable to others D responses which the participants think they ought to give even if they are not true Your answer [1] 8 Which is an example of qualitative data? A the diary entries of six patients suffering from schizophrenia B the length of time each participant spent reading a list of words C the modal colour chosen by extroverts D the percentage of respondents who agreed with capital punishment Your answer [1] 9 What is the probability of a significant result occurring by chance where the significance level is p≤0.025? A 2.5% or less B 25% or less C at least 97.5% D less than 2.5% Your answer [1] 10 Which inferential test should a researcher use to decide whether a correlation is significant? A Binomial Sign test B Mann–Whitney U test C Spearman’s Rho test D Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test Your answer [1] SP EC IM EN 5 © OCR 2016 H567/01 Turn over 11 Which one of the following is a feature of all experiments? A direct manipulation of the independent variable B measurement of a dependent variable C random allocation of participants to conditions D use of controlled environment Your answer [1] 12 How was one of the dependent variables measured in Grant et al.’s (1998) study into context- dependent memory? A the amount of time taken to recall ten key details from a written passage B the number of details recalled from a commentary played through headphones C the number of written words recognised from a commentary played through headphones D the score from multiple-choice questions based on a written passage Your answer [1] SP EC IM EN 6 © OCR 2016 H567/01 13 Look at the following scatter diagram: Which is the best estimate of the correlation coefficient for the above data? A 0.7 B 0.4 C 0.3 D 0.8 Your answer [1] 14 What is a weakness of using a mode as a measure of central tendency? A it can generate a number not in the data set B it is easily affected by outliers C it is not suitable for nominal data D it relies on a score occurring more than once Your answer [1] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 2 4 6 8 10 P ar ki n g sc o re Map reading score A graph to show the relationship between participants' map reading score and parking score. SP EC IM EN 7 © OCR 2016 H567/01 Turn over 15 Which is a requirement of a parametric test? A data is at least ordinal level B mean scores are significantly different C sample is drawn from a skewed population D standard deviations are not significantly different Your answer [1] 16 In Bandura’s (1961) Bobo doll study, the participants were pre-tested to assess their aggression levels. What was the main purpose of his procedure? A to allow for a matched pairs design B to exclude children who were especially aggressive C to help to decide on the sex of the role model for each participant D to measure the change in aggression before and after the experiment Your answer [1] 17 Which feature of science refers to the importance of being able to refute a psychologist’s claim? A deduction B face validity C falsification D verification Your answer [1] SP EC IM EN 8 © OCR 2016 H567/01 18 Which is an example of interval level data? A the mass, in grams, of the brain of an individual with schizophrenia B the number of nightmares experienced by an individual with schizophrenia C the number of times an individual with schizophrenia has been admitted to hospital D the rating of the severity of the delusions experienced by an individual with schizophrenia Your answer [1] 19 What was Milgram (1963) unable to control in his experiment into obedience? A how Mr Wallace interacted with the participant B the comments used as prods C the confederate acting as the experimenter D the increments in voltage Your answer [1] 20 What is meant by induction in psychological research? A where a theory is tested through observations B where observations contradict a theory C where observations generate a definitive theory D where observations generate a likely theory Your answer [1] SP EC IM EN 9 © OCR 2016 H567/01 Turn over SECTION B: Research design and response Answer all the questions in Section B. A psychologist used an observation to investigate the effect of environment on individuals’ need for personal space. They decided to carry out a covert observation in three settings: a nightclub, a college library and the changing room in a leisure centre. Members of the public using the facilities made up the sample. The psychologist observed key behaviours, such as reduced eye contact, defensive body posture and movement away from people. 21 Outline one strength of using an observation compared to self-report. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……….………………………………………………………………………………………………………..[2] 22 Identify three ethical issues that would need to be considered when carrying out this observation. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……….………………………………………………………………………………………………………..[3] 23 The psychologist used an opportunity sample for their research. (a) Explain one strength and one weakness of using an opportunity sample for this study. [6] …………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………. ……….………………………………………………………………………………………….…………… SP EC IM EN 10 © OCR 2016 H567/01 …………………………………………………………………………………………………….………… ……….………………………………………………………………………………………….…………... …………………………………………………………………………………………………….………… ……….………………………………………………………………………………………….…………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………. ……….………………………………………………………………………………………….…………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………. ……….………………………………………………………………………………………….…………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………. ……….………………………………………………………………………………………….…………… (b) Name and outline one other sampling technique for selecting participants. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………. …….………………………………………………………………………………………….…………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………. ………………………………………….…………………………………………………….………...[2] (c) Describe one strength and one weakness of the sampling technique you have chosen in question 23(b). [4] ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………. SP EC IM EN 11 © OCR 2016 H567/01 Turn over ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………. You have been asked to carry out a further observational study to investigate the differences in use of personal space between rural and urban environments. This will be part of a quasi experiment using one village and one city. 24 Write an alternative hypothesis for your investigation. ………………………………………………………………….…………………………………….…………. …….………………………………………………………….…………………………………….…………… ………………………………………………………………….…………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ………………………………………….…………………….…………………………………….………...[3] 25* Explain how you would carry out an observation to investigate the differences in use of personal space between rural and urban environments. Justify your decisions as part of your explanation. [15] You must refer to:  structured or unstructured observations  participant or non-participant observations  time or event sampling  collection of data. You should use your own experience of carrying out an observation to inform your response. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. SP EC IM EN 12 © OCR 2016 H567/01 ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. SP EC IM EN 13 © OCR 2016 H567/01 Turn over ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. Turn over for the next question SP EC IM EN 14 © OCR 2016 H567/01 SECTION C: Data analysis and interpretation Answer all of the questions in Section C. A psychologist tested the effects of expectations on people’s perceptions by carrying out the following experiment. The test item was an ambiguous image – an image that had been purposefully drawn to be perceived in one of two ways – either as a monkey or as a teapot. Participants had to say what they saw after they had viewed the image for one second. Before carrying out the experiment, the psychologist had checked that the ambiguous image could be perceived in one of two ways. His findings, from this check, are presented in the bar chart below: 26 (a) Identify two findings from the bar chart. ………………………………………………………………….……..…………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………………...………………………….………[2] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Monkey Teapot Other Fr e q u e n cy Image perceived A bar chart to show the frequency of the different ways in which the ambiguous image was perceived SP EC IM EN 15 © OCR 2016 H567/01 Turn over (b) Explain why a bar chart is appropriate for presenting this data. [2] ………………………………………………………………….……..…………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………………...………………………….…………. (c) Calculate the percentage number of times that the image was identified as neither a monkey nor a teapot. Show your workings. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………………...………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….......….[2] Fifty participants were recruited and then randomly allocated into two groups. In one condition, five drawings of other animals were presented, one after the other, before the ambiguous image. Participants had to name each one of these. In the second condition, the set up was the same but five images of kitchen items were used. 27 (a) Name and briefly describe the experimental design used in this study. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………………...………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….......…[2] (b) Explain how the psychologist would have randomly allocated participants to each group [2] …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. SP EC IM EN 16 © OCR 2016 H567/01 …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………………...………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...…………………………………...........…. (c) Discuss why this experimental design was appropriate for this study. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………………...………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….......……. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………………...………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….......…….. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….………[5] 28. Identify and simplify the ratio of number of participants who perceived a monkey in the first condition and the number who perceived a monkey in the second condition. (2) 28 (a) Identify and simplify the ratio of the number of participants who perceived a monkey in the first condition and the number who perceived a monkey in the second condition. [2] …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. The findings from the study are presented below: A table to show the number of participants who perceived the ambiguous image as a monkey or as a teapot from both conditions: image presented with animals and image presented with kitchen items Perceived as monkey Perceived as teapot Presented with animals 15 10 Presented with kitchen items 5 12 SP EC IM EN 17 © OCR 2016 H567/01 Turn over …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………………...………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….......…….. (b) Identify and simplify the ratio of the number of participants who perceived a teapot in the first condition and the number who perceived a teapot in the second condition. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………………...………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...………………………………….......….[2] 29 The psychologist analysed the data using the Chi Squared test. Give two reasons for this choice of test with reference to the study. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….………[4] SP EC IM EN 18 © OCR 2016 H567/01 30 Explain how the psychologist would determine the appropriate degrees of freedom (df) for this test. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…….…[2] The Chi Squared gave an observed (calculated) value of 3.80 Levels of significance for a one–tailed test Significance Level 0.05 0.025 0.01 Critical Value 2.71 3.84 5.41 31 Using the above critical values, explain whether the psychologist has found a significant difference or not. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….………….. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….…………. ……………………………………………………………….……………………………………….………[4] SP EC IM EN 19 © OCR 2016 H567/01 32 Outline what is meant by each of the following features of science and state how they apply to this experiment into perception. (a) Cause and effect ………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. ………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. ………………………………………………………………………...………………………….…………. ………………………………………………………………...………………………………….......…….. ………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. …………………………………………………………………...……………………………….………[3] (b) Objectivity …………………………………….…………………………...………………………………….…………. ………………………………….……………………………...………………………………….…………. ……………………………….………………………………………...………………………….…………. ………………………………..………………………………...…………………………………............… ………………………………………………………………...………………………………….…………. ………………………….……………………………………...………………………………….......….[3] END OF QUESTION PAPER SP EC IM EN 20 © OCR 2016 H567/01 Copyright Information: OCR is committed to seeking permission to reproduce all third-party content that it uses in the assessment materials. OCR has attempted to identify and contact all copyright holders whose work is used in this paper. To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced in the OCR Copyright Acknowledgements booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download from our public website (www.ocr.org.uk) after the live examination series. If OCR has unwittingly failed to correctly acknowledge or clear any third-party content in this assessment material, OCR will be happy to correct its mistake at the earliest possible opportunity. For queries or further information please contact the Copyright Team, First Floor, 9 Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 1GE. OCR is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group; Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge. SP EC IM EN …day June 20XX – Morning/Afternoon A Level Psychology H567/01 Research methods SAMPLE MARK SCHEME Duration: 2 hours MAXIMUM MARK 90 This document consists of 28 pages SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme 20xx 2 MARKING INSTRUCTIONS PREPARATION FOR MARKING SCORIS 1. Make sure that you have accessed and completed the relevant training packages for on-screen marking: scoris assessor Online Training; OCR Essential Guide to Marking. 2. Make sure that you have read and understood the mark scheme and the question paper for this unit. These are posted on the RM Cambridge Assessment Support Portal http://www.rm.com/support/ca 3. Log-in to scoris and mark the required number of practice responses (“scripts”) and the required number of standardisation responses. YOU MUST MARK 10 PRACTICE AND 10 STANDARDISATION RESPONSES BEFORE YOU CAN BE APPROVED TO MARK LIVE SCRIPTS. TRADITIONAL Before the Standardisation meeting you must mark at least 10 scripts from several centres. For this preliminary marking you should use pencil and follow the mark scheme. Bring these marked scripts to the meeting. MARKING 1. Mark strictly to the mark scheme. 2. Marks awarded must relate directly to the marking criteria. 3. The schedule of dates is very important. It is essential that you meet the scoris 50% and 100% (traditional 50% Batch 1 and 100% Batch 2) deadlines. If you experience problems, you must contact your Team Leader (Supervisor) without delay. 4. If you are in any doubt about applying the mark scheme, consult your Team Leader by telephone, email or via the scoris messaging system. SP EC IM EN http://www.rm.com/support/ca H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 3 5. Work crossed out: a. where a candidate crosses out an answer and provides an alternative response, the crossed out response is not marked and gains no marks b. if a candidate crosses out an answer to a whole question and makes no second attempt, and if the inclusion of the answer does not cause a rubric infringement, the assessor should attempt to mark the crossed out answer and award marks appropriately. 6. Always check the pages (and additional objects if present) at the end of the response in case any answers have been continued there. If the candidate has continued an answer there then add a tick to confirm that the work has been seen. 7. There is a NR (No Response) option. Award NR (No Response) - if there is nothing written at all in the answer space - OR if there is a comment which does not in any way relate to the question (e.g. ‘can’t do’, ‘don’t know’) - OR if there is a mark (e.g. a dash, a question mark) which isn’t an attempt at the question. Note: Award 0 marks – for an attempt that earns no credit (including copying out the question). 8. The scoris comments box is used by your Team Leader to explain the marking of the practice responses. Please refer to these comments when checking your practice responses. Do not use the comments box for any other reason. If you have any questions or comments for your Team Leader, use the phone, the scoris messaging system, or e-mail. 9. Assistant Examiners will send a brief report on the performance of candidates to their Team Leader (Supervisor) via email by the end of the marking period. The report should contain notes on particular strengths displayed as well as common errors or weaknesses. Constructive criticism of the question paper/mark scheme is also appreciated. SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme 20xx 4 10. For answers marked by levels of response: a. To determine the level – start at the highest level and work down until you reach the level that matches the answer b. To determine the mark within the level, consider the following: Descriptor Award mark On the borderline of this level and the one below At bottom of level Just enough achievement on balance for this level Above bottom and either below middle or at middle of level (depending on number of marks available) Meets the criteria but with some slight inconsistency Above middle and either below top of level or at middle of level (depending on number of marks available) Consistently meets the criteria for this level At top of level 11. Annotations Annotation Meaning SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 5 12. Subject-specific Marking Instructions INTRODUCTION Your first task as an Examiner is to become thoroughly familiar with the material on which the examination depends. This material includes:  the specification, especially the assessment objectives  the question paper and its rubrics  the mark scheme. You should ensure that you have copies of these materials. You should ensure also that you are familiar with the administrative procedures related to the marking process. These are set out in the OCR booklet Instructions for Examiners. If you are examining for the first time, please read carefully Appendix 5 Introduction to Script Marking: Notes for New Examiners. Please ask for help or guidance whenever you need it. Your first point of contact is your Team Leader. SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 6 LEVELS OF RESPONSE – LEVEL DESCRIPTORS AO1 AO2 AO3 Good Response demonstrates good relevant knowledge and understanding. Accurate and detailed description. Response demonstrates good application of psychological knowledge and understanding. Application will be mainly explicit, accurate and relevant. Response demonstrates good analysis, interpretation and/or evaluation that is mainly relevant to the demand of the question. Valid conclusions that effectively summarise issues and argument is highly skilled and shows good understanding. Reasonable Response demonstrates reasonable relevant knowledge and understanding. Generally accurate description lacking some detail. Response demonstrates reasonable application of psychological knowledge and understanding. Application will be partially explicit, accurate and relevant. Response demonstrates reasonable analysis, interpretation and/or evaluation that is partially relevant to the demand of the question. Valid conclusions that effectively summarise issues and argument are competent and understanding is reasonable. Limited Response demonstrates limited relevant knowledge and understanding. Limited description lacking in detail. Response demonstrates limited application of psychological knowledge and understanding. Application may be related to the general topic area rather than the specific question. Response demonstrates limited analysis, interpretation and/or evaluation that may be related to topic area. Some valid conclusions that summarise issues and arguments. Basic Response demonstrates basic knowledge and understanding that is only partially relevant. Basic description with no detail. Response demonstrates basic application of psychological knowledge and understanding. Responses will be generalised lacking focus on the question. Response demonstrates basic analysis, interpretation and/or evaluation that is not related to the question. Basic or no valid conclusions that attempt to summarise issues. No evidence of arguments. SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 7 USING THE MARK SCHEME Please study this Mark Scheme carefully. The Mark Scheme is an integral part of the process that begins with the setting of the question paper and ends with the awarding of grades. Question papers and Mark Schemes are developed in association with each other so that issues of differentiation and positive achievement can be addressed from the very start. This Mark Scheme is a working document; it is not exhaustive; it does not provide ‘correct’ answers. The Mark Scheme can only provide ‘best guesses’ about how the question will work out, and it is subject to revision after we have looked at a wide range of scripts. In your marking, you will encounter valid responses which are not covered by the Mark Scheme: these responses must be credited. You will encounter answers which fall outside the ‘target range’ of Bands for the paper which you are marking. Please mark these answers according to the marking criteria. Please read carefully all the scripts in your allocation and make every effort to look positively for achievement throughout the ability range. Always be prepared to use the full range of marks. (r) = recall item only, (m) = mathematical content. INSTRUCTIONS TO EXAMINERS: INDIVIDUAL ANSWERS 1 The indicative content indicates the expected parameters for candidates’ answers, but be prepared to recognise and credit unexpected approaches where they show relevance. 2 Using ‘best-fit’, decide first which set of BAND DESCRIPTORS best describes the overall quality of the answer. Once the band is located, adjust the mark concentrating on features of the answer which make it stronger or weaker following the guidelines for refinement. Highest mark: If clear evidence of all the qualities in the band descriptors is shown, the HIGHEST Mark should be awarded. Lowest mark: If the answer shows the candidate to be borderline (i.e. they have achieved all the qualities of the bands below and show limited evidence of meeting the criteria of the band in question) the LOWEST mark should be awarded. Middle mark: This mark should be used for candidates who are secure in the band. They are not ‘borderline’ but they have only achieved some of the qualities in the band descriptors. 3 Be prepared to use the full range of marks. Do not reserve (e.g.) high Band 6 marks ‘in case’ something turns up of a quality you have not yet seen. If an answer gives clear evidence of the qualities described in the band descriptors, reward appropriately. 4 Consideration should be given to the weightings of the assessment objectives within a question, these are clearly stated for each question and care should be taken not to place too much emphasis on a particular skill. SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 8 Question Answer Marks Guidance SECTION A: Multiple Choice 1 Which is the name of a type of interview? 1 mark for D – structured. 1 AO1 1b (r) 2 Look at the following academic reference. Piliavin, I.M., Rodin, J.A. & Piliavin, J. (1969) Good Samaritanism: An underground phenomenon? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 13. What is the error in this Harvard style reference? 1 mark for B – the page numbers are missing. 1 AO1 1b 3 Which two groups were compared in Chaney et al.’s (2004) study into operant conditioning? 1 mark for B – children using a standard inhaler and children using a modified inhaler. 1 AO1 1b (r) 4 Look at the following data set from a condition where participants were timed (in seconds) completing a task in a crisis situation. {36 45 51 67 54 19 50 45 27 76 54 45} What is the range of this data set? 1 mark for C – 58. 1 AO2b (m) 5 Read the following hypothesis. H1: “Women who earn above average salaries will score significantly higher on a confidence test than women who earn below average salaries.” What is the independent variable in this hypothesis? 1 mark for A – earnings above or below average salaries. 1 AO2d SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 9 Question Answer Marks Guidance 6 Which group of people were included as participants for Maguire’s (2000) study into the hippocampi of taxi-drivers? 1 mark for C – people above 32 years of age. 1 AO1 1b (r) 7 What is meant by the term ‘socially desirable responses’ in psychological research? 1 mark for D – responses which the participants think they ought to give even if they are not true. 1 AO1 1a (r) 8 Which is an example of qualitative data? 1 mark for A – the diary entries of six patients suffering from schizophrenia. 1 AO2 e (m) 9 What is the probability of a significant result occurring by chance where the significance level is p≤0.025? 1 mark for A – 2.5% or less. 1 AO1 1b (m) 10 Which inferential test should a researcher use to decide whether a correlation is significant? 1 mark for C – Spearman’s Rho test. 1 AO1 1b (m) 11 Which one of the following is a feature of all experiments? 1 mark for B – measurement of a dependent variable. 1 AO1 1b (r) 12 How was one of the dependent variables measured in Grant et al.’s (1998) study into context-dependent memory? 1 mark for D – the score from multiple-choice questions based on a written passage. 1 AO1 1b (r) SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 10 Question Answer Marks Guidance 13 (From the scatter diagram) Which is the best estimate of the correlation coefficient for the above data? 1 mark for C – 0.3. 1 AO2 h (m) 14 What is a weakness of using a mode as a measure of central tendency? 1 mark for D – it relies on a score occurring more than once. 1 AO1 1b (m) 15 Which is a requirement of a parametric test? 1 mark for D – standard deviations are not significantly different. 1 AO1 1b (m) 16 In Bandura’s (1961) Bobo doll study, the participants were pre-tested to assess their aggression levels. What was the main purpose of his procedure? 1 mark for A – to allow for a matched pairs design. 1 AO1 1b 17 Which feature of science refers to the importance of being able to refute a psychologist’s claim? 1 mark for C – Falsification. 1 AO1 1b 18 Which is an example of interval level data? 1 mark for A – the mass, in grams, of the brain of an individual with schizophrenia. 1 AO2 f (m) 19 What was Milgram (1963) unable to control in his experiment into obedience? 1 mark for A – how Mr Wallace interacted with the participant. 1 AO1 1b 20 What is meant by induction in psychological research? 1 mark for D – where observations generate a likely theory. 1 AO1 1b (r) SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 11 Question Answer Marks Guidance SECTION B: Research design and response 21 Outline ONE strength of using an observation compared to self-report. 1 mark for a strength of an observation e.g. ‘a researcher can see for themselves what people do in a situation’, ‘it has higher validity’ 1 further mark for an elaboration which makes explicit comparison with self-report. e.g. ‘a researcher can see for themselves what people do in a situation (1) rather than relying on their honesty (1)’, ‘observation allow psychologists to see how individuals behave in their natural environment (1) whereas self-report relies too much on respondents’ insight (1)’. Other appropriate responses should be credited. 2 AO3 2a Do only credit a strength which is implicitly or explicitly an advantage over self-report, e.g. do not credit higher ecological validity as this would imply a comparison with the experimental method. 22 Identify THREE ethical issues that would need to be considered when carrying out this observation. 1 mark for each feasible ethical issue (even if brief) e.g. deception, (lack of) right to withdraw, need for debriefing, confidentiality, (lack of) consent, etc. Candidates can outline the issue (in the context of the study) without explicitly naming it e.g. respect people’s privacy when they are changing). Other appropriate responses should be credited. 3 AO2 c The issue does not have to be specific to covert observations but should apply to the method. This means most issues are creditworthy but guard against those that are not e.g. use of non–human animals. Be careful not to credit issues that overlap or make similar points e.g. causing distress and causing discomfort. SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 12 Question Answer Marks Guidance 23 (a) Explain ONE strength and ONE weakness of using an opportunity sample for this study. Up to 3 marks for one strength of opportunity sample and up to 3 marks for one weakness. For both the strength and weakness:  1 AO3 mark for explaining the strength/weakness  1 AO2 mark for applying the strength/weakness to an opportunity sample  1 AO2 mark for applying the strength/weakness to the study (contextualisation). e.g. ‘One strength is that the sample is quick and convenient (1) because the psychologist used people who were readily available at the nightclub, college library and leisure centre changing room being observed (1) therefore saving time and other resources which would have to be used for more complex samples (1).’ e.g. ‘One weakness is that samples tend to be biased (1) as similar people tend to gather in certain places (1) – for example, the college library is likely to contain mainly young people who may use personal space differently from more experienced, older people (1).’ Other appropriate responses should be credited. 6 4 AO2 g 2 AO3 2b If a candidate offers more than one strength/weakness then credit best one. If the candidate does not clearly identify which is the strength/weakness (and it is obvious which is which through appropriate use of language) then the full range of marks can be awarded. If it is not clear, then the first point should be taken as the strength and the second as the weakness. (b) Name and outline ONE other sampling technique for selecting participants. 1 AO1 mark for naming another sampling technique, e.g. random, snowball, self-selecting. 2 2 AO1 1b If outline and named technique do not match then award 1 mark only. If a sampling technique is not named or is not a recognised technique then the outline may still gain credit if it is obvious what technique is being described. SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 13 Question Answer Marks Guidance (b) 1 AO1 mark for an outline of the chosen technique, e.g. ‘random sampling is when everyone in the chosen settings has an equal chance of being selected for observation’. Other appropriate responses should be credited. If a candidate offers an example (e.g. pertaining to the study) then it can still gain credit in as far as it describes the technique. The candidate does not have to explicitly relate to the study for full marks – the sampling method just has to be feasible in relation to the study. (c) Describe ONE strength and ONE weakness of the sampling technique you have chosen in question 23(b). Up to 2 marks for one strength of the technique chosen in (b) and up to 2 marks for one weakness of the technique chosen in (b).  1 AO3 mark for describing each strength/weakness of the sampling technique identified in (b)  1 AO2 mark for applying the strength/weakness to the sampling technique identified in (b) . e.g. ‘random sampling tends to give a representative sample (1) because there is no opportunity for bias when left to chance (1)’. e.g. ‘random sampling can generate skewed samples (1) which makes generalisation difficult (1)’. Other appropriate responses should be credited. 4 2 AO2 e 2 AO3 2a If a candidate offers more than one strength/weakness and they cannot be linked then credit best one. If the candidate does not clearly identify which is the strength/weakness (and it is obvious which is which through appropriate use of language), then the full range of marks can be awarded. If it is not clear, then the first point should be taken as the strength and the second as the weakness. SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 14 Question Answer Marks Guidance 24 Write an alternative hypothesis for your investigation. 1 mark for the stem which should predict a difference (whether directional or non-directional) Plus 1 mark for inclusion of the IV and DV Plus 1 further mark if the both IV and DV are fully operationalised, with both parts of the IV explicitly stated. 3 mark answers e.g. ‘There is a significant difference (1) in the average distance observed between city dwellers (1) and that observed between rural dwellers (1).’ e.g. ‘People living in urban areas will use significantly more defensive signals (1) in the space of one hour (1) than people living in rural areas (1).’ 2 mark answers e.g. ‘There will be a significant difference (1) between the body language of urban dwellers and rural dwellers (1)’ e.g. ‘There will be a difference between city and countryside people (1) and the duration of eye contact used in 10 minutes (1)’. 1 mark answers e.g. ‘There will be a significant difference (1) in the personal space of different people.’ e.g. ‘There will be no difference between use of personal space. (1)’ Other appropriate responses should be credited. 3 AO2 d The ‘first’ and ‘second’ mark can be awarded independently of each other. A hypothesis which has the right ‘ingredients’ but lacks clarity due to its construction should be limited to 2 marks. The use of the word ‘significant’ is not necessary for full marks. Hypotheses can be written using future or present tense. SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 15 Question Answer Marks Guidance 25 * Explain how you would carry out an observation to investigate the differences in use of personal space between rural and urban environments. Justify your decisions as part of your explanation. • structured OR unstructured observations • participant OR non-participant observations • time OR event sampling • collection of data. AO1 (3 marks) Required features  Either structured observation or unstructured observation  Either participant observation or non– participant observation  Either time sampling or event sampling  Understanding of ways of collecting data in observation e.g. use of more than one observer, use of behavioural categories, use of video recordings, location of researcher, etc. AO2 (5 marks) Application of the above techniques to the context of the study (observing personal space in rural/urban settings). e.g. using a checklist of behaviours for protecting personal space (structured), watching people while being part of the crowd in the city (participant), a structured observation would allow for reliable comparison between the rural and urban settings, etc. 15 3 AO1 1b 5 AO2 g/h 7 AO3 2b Level 4: 12–15 marks Good knowledge and understanding of observation and of appropriate sampling techniques. Good application of knowledge and understanding to the design of the investigation. Good evaluation and justification of design All of the required features are addressed (ie either structured observation or unstructured observation, either participant observation or non–participant observation, either time sampling or event sampling and collection of data) and the candidate demonstrates accurate knowledge of each. There is good evidence of application in the description of techniques showing high levels of understanding. There is appropriate justification of all or most techniques chosen and some of this is contextualised with reference to the investigation brief. There is a well-developed line of reasoning which is clear and logically structured. The information presented is relevant and substantiated. The response explicitly draws on the candidates own experience and there are clear links between the planned investigation and the practical activity carried out. Level 3: 8 – 11 marks Good knowledge and understanding of observation and of appropriate sampling techniques. Reasonable application of knowledge and understanding to the design of the investigation. Reasonable evaluation and justification of design. SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 16 Question Answer Marks Guidance 25 * AO3 (7 marks) A broad discussion of design decisions e.g. structured observations would be inappropriate for the qualitative nature of the observation, participant observation would be difficult in terms of accurately recording the behaviours because the researcher would be too involved/distracted, non–participant observation would allow for a level of objectivity, time sampling would give a more representative sample as it spans a period of time, etc. Other appropriate responses should be credited. There are no additional marks for contextualising the justification of the chosen observational techniques but a good answer should include this at points but not necessarily for all reasoning. Most of the required features are addressed and the candidate demonstrates reasonably accurate knowledge of each. There is some evidence of application in the description of techniques showing a level of understanding. There is some appropriate justification of techniques chosen and, at points, this is contextualised with reference to the investigation brief. There is a line of reasoning presented with some structure. The information presented is in the most-part relevant and supported by some evidence. The response draws on the candidates own experience and there are some links between the planned investigation and the practical activity carried out. Level 2: 4 – 7 marks Reasonable knowledge and understanding of field or laboratory experiments and of an appropriate experimental design. Limited application of knowledge and understanding to the design of the investigation. Limited evaluation and justification of design Some of the required features are addressed and the candidate demonstrates knowledge of each. There is limited evidence of application in the description of techniques showing basic understanding. There is likely to be an attempt to justify techniques chosen although this may not be contextualised. The information has some relevance and is presented with limited structure. The information is supported by limited evidence. The response makes reference to the SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 17 candidates own experience and there are vague links between the planned investigation and the practical activity carried out. Level 1: 1 – 3 marks Limited knowledge and understanding of of field or laboratory experiments and of an appropriate experimental design. Basic application of knowledge and understanding to the design of the investigation. Basic evaluation and justification of design At least one of the required observational techniques is addressed and the candidate demonstrates knowledge here. There may be weak application of chosen technique(s). There may be an attempt to justify techniques chosen although it is unlikely to be contextualised. The information is basic and communicated in an unstructured way. The information is supported by limited evidence and the relationship to the evidence may not be clear. The response may make some reference to the candidates own experience and there are weak or tenuous links between the planned investigation and the practical activity carried out. 0 marks: No creditworthy response. SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 18 Question Answer Marks Guidance Section C: Data analysis and interpretation 26 (a) Identify TWO findings from the bar chart. 1 mark for recognising that the image was mainly perceived as a monkey or teapot compared to anything else. 1 mark for recognising that the image was perceived as much as a monkey as a teapot. Other appropriate responses should be credited. 2 AO3 2a (m) (b) Explain why a bar chart is appropriate for presenting this data. 1 mark for explaining that data is discrete/categorical/ nominal. 1 mark for explaining that the graph allows for comparison/looking for a difference. Other appropriate responses should be credited. 2 AO3 2b (m) (c) Calculate the percentage number of times that the image was identified as neither a monkey nor a teapot. Show your workings. 1 AO1 mark for 10% (or 10) 1 AO2 mark for workings, i.e. 2/(9+9+2)=0.1 Other appropriate responses should be credited. 2 1 AO1 1b (m) 1 AO2 h (m) 27 (a) Name and briefly describe the experimental design used in this study. 1 mark for naming independent measures (groups) or unrelated design. 1 mark for knowing this means assigning different participants to each condition. Other appropriate responses should be credited. 2 AO2 f Do not credit description if it assumes that participants are matched. Each mark can be credited without the other, e.g. correctly named design but incorrect/inadequate description, or accurate description with no design named or design misnamed. SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 19 Question Answer Marks Guidance (b) Explain how the psychologist would have randomly allocated participants to each group. 1 mark for an appropriate method – all names in and then drawn out. 1 mark for suggesting a method of selection that relates to the source. e.g. ‘the participants are each given a number, the numbers are then drawn from a hat. The first 25 numbers drawn are group one and the second 25 of numbers drawn are group 2.’ Accept other practical descriptions that would produce a truly random sample. Other appropriate responses should be credited. 2 AO2 h (m) Participants do not have to be allocated numbers – for example, names could be used. (c) Discuss why this experimental design was appropriate for this study. AO3 (3 marks)  reduced demand characteristics  eliminating practice effect  no need for time delay between conditions  other appropriate discussion should be credited. 5 2 AO2 f 3 AO3 2a/2b Level 3: 5 marks Good application of knowledge and understanding to discuss why the experimental design was appropriate for this study. Good discussion of why the experimental design was appropriate for this study. Level 2: 3–4 marks Good application of knowledge and understanding to discuss why the experimental design was appropriate for this study. Reasonable discussion of why the experimental design was appropriate for this study. SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 20 Question Answer Marks Guidance (c) AO2 (2 marks) Candidates will receive credit for applying any reasons given to the study. e.g. ‘the participants may perceive the image the same way again (1) because they have perceived it this way once already (practice effect) (1).’ Other appropriate responses should be credited. Level 1: 1–2 marks Reasonable application of knowledge and understanding to discuss why the experimental design was appropriate for this study. Limited discussion of why the experimental design was appropriate for this study. 0 marks – No creditworthy response. Credit can be given in (c) even if no credit given in (a). 28 (a) Identify and simplify the ratio of the number of participants who perceived a monkey in the first condition and the number who perceived a monkey in the second condition. 1 AO1 mark for identifying the ratio 15:5 1 AO2 mark for simplifying the ratio to 3:1 2 1 AO1 lb (m) 1 AO2 h (m) The ratio can be identified through description i.e. the ratio is 15 participants to 5 participants but the simplified ratio must be in standard format. (b) Identify and simplify the ratio of the number of participants who perceived a teapot in the first condition and the number who perceived a monkey in the second condition. 1 AO1 mark for identifying the ratio 10:12 1 AO2 mark for simplifying the ratio to 5:6 2 1 AO1 lb (m) 1 AO2 h (m) The ratio can be identified through description i.e. the ratio is 10 participants to 12 participants but the simplified ratio must be in standard format. SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 21 Question Answer Marks Guidance 29 The psychologist analysed the data using the Chi Squared test. Give TWO reasons for this choice of test with reference to the study. Up to 2 marks for any of the following reasons;  experiment investigated a difference or association  design was unrelated  data was nominal. A further 2 marks for relating the chosen criteria to features of the study (1 mark for each criteria) e.g. ‘the experiment investigated a difference (1) between perception of an image depending on how it had been primed (1)’. e.g. ‘the design was unrelated (1) as each condition contained a different set of participants (1).’ e.g. ‘the data was nominal (1) as responses were categorised as either ‘monkey’ or ‘teapot’ (1).’ Other appropriate responses should be credited. 4 2 AO1 1b (m) 2 AO2 b (m) Do not credit parametric assumptions as data is only nominal in the first place. 30 Explain how the psychologist would determine the appropriate degrees of freedom (df) for this test. 1 AO1 mark for stating that degrees of freedom can be calculated as (rows-1)(column-1). 1 AO2 mark for stating that in this study, there is 1 degree of freedom. 2 1 AO1 1b (m) 1 AO2 h (m) 31 Using the above critical values, explain whether the psychologist has found a significant difference or not. 1 mark for explaining the results are significant at p=0.05 4 AO3 1b (m) SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 22 Question Answer Marks Guidance 31 1 mark for explaining why, i.e. observed value is greater than critical value. 1 mark for explaining that 0.05 is the accepted level of significance for analysis. 1 mark for explaining that the results were not significant at the other more stringent levels of significance. SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 23 Question Answer Marks Guidance 32 (a) Outline what is meant by each of the following features of science and state how they apply to this experiment into perception. Cause and effect 1 AO1 mark for understanding the causal nature of one thing affecting another. 1 AO1 additional mark for use of relevant terms, e.g. manipulation of IV, measurement of DV, control of other variables. 1 AO2 mark for application to the study, e.g. identifying direction of causation (first set of images affect perception of ambiguous image), identification of IV (where primed with animal pictures or pictures of kitchen items). Other appropriate responses should be credited. 3 2 AO1 1b 1 AO2 b (b) Objectivity 1 AO1 mark for understanding that objectivity relates to fact/shared knowledge/unbiased viewpoint. 1 AO1 additional mark for elaboration of the point, e.g. comparing objectivity with subjectivity, the value of objectivity. 1 AO2 mark for application to the study, e.g. there could be no disagreement on what participant stated, use of imagery allows for publically observable material. Other appropriate responses should be credited. 3 2 AO1 1b 1 AO2 b SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 24 Assessment Objectives (AO) Grid (*includes quality of extended response) Question AO1 AO2 AO3 Mathematical content 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 Measuring dispersion (1) 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 Qualitative and quantitative data (1) 9 1 Probability (1) 10 1 Choosing a test (1) 11 1 12 1 13 1 Use of scatter diagram (1) 14 1 Mean/median/mode (1) 15 1 Choosing a test (1) 16 1 17 1 18 1 Levels of measurement (1) 19 1 20 1 Section A 15 5 21 2 22 3 23a 4 2 23b 2 23c 2 2 24 3 25* 3 5 7 Section B 5 17 13 SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 25 QUESTION AO1 AO2 AO3 Maths 26a 2 Interpreting bar charts (2) 26b 2 Interpreting bar charts (2) 26c 1 1 Use of percentages (2) 27a 2 27b 2 Principles of sampling (2) 27c 2 3 28a 1 1 Use of ratios (2) 28b 1 1 Use of ratios (2) 29 2 2 Choosing a test (4) 30 1 1 Solve simple algebraic equations (2) 31 4 Use of stats tables (4) 32a 2 1 32b 2 1 Section C 10 14 11 TOTAL 30 36 24 SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 26 BLANK PAGE SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 27 BLANK PAGE SP EC IM EN H567/01 Mark Scheme June 20xx 28 BLANK PAGE SP EC IM EN
AS and A LEVEL Teacher Guide PSYCHOLOGY H167/H567 For first teaching in 2015 Qualification Accredited www.ocr.org.uk/psychology Component 1 Research Methods Question Bank Version 1 Introduction This booklet is intended to be a guide only to the types of questions students may face in either the AS or A level examination for Psychology Component 1 Research methods. It is not example specimen papers. The questions are adaptations from the legacy papers that fit the content of the new specification. It contains a variety of questions for each content area which you may wish to use as a form of assessment for your students. You may wish to give this booklet to your students as a revision or independent study aid. Alternatively you may wish to use a section of questions from each content area to create your own assessments that fit with the current question requirements and sections of the new specification. AS and A LEVEL PSYCHOLOGY Component 1 examination Page 3 Specification summary Page 4 1.1 Research methods and techniques Page 6 1.2 Planning and conducting research Page 7 1.3 Data recording analysis and presentation Page 10 1.4 Report writing Page 14 1.5 Practical activities Page 15 1.6 How Science works Page 18 In tr od uc ti on 2 Copyright © 2016 OCR Co m po ne nt 1 e xa m in at io n Component 1 examination • The content for AS and A level is the same. • The A level paper is greater overall in assessment difficulty. • AS level – 75 marks (1.5 hours), 50% of total AS level. • A level – 90 marks (2 hours), 30% of total A level. A reminder about the format of the Paper: AS Level – 75 marks Section A 15 Multiple choice questions. These contain four options each (one correct answer) and are worth one mark per question. These can assess any part of the component. 15 Marks (20%) Section B Research design and response: Students are required to answer all questions relating to a novel source. Students will be required to design their own piece of research and relate it to a practical they have conducted. 35 marks (47%) Section C Data Analysis and Interpretation: Students are required to answer all questions relating to a novel source. 25 marks (33%) A Level – 90 marks Section A 20 Multiple choice questions. These contain four options each (one correct answer) and are worth one mark per question. These can assess any part of the component. 20 Marks (22%) Section B Research design and response: Students are required to answer all questions relating to a novel source. Students will be required to design their own piece of research and relate it to a practical they have conducted. 35 marks (39%) Section C Data Analysis and Interpretation: Students are required to answer all questions relating to a novel source. 35 marks (39%) This paper challenges students to plan, conduct, analyse, and report psychological research across a range of experimental and non-experimental methodologies and techniques. It promotes an understanding of the methods of scientific enquiry used in empirical research and aims to develop relevant knowledge and skills for this process. It also encourages the acquisition of a range of evaluative concepts, reviewing and discussing the design outcomes of research and the application of such knowledge to the wider community, society and economy. Competency and confidence in a variety of mathematical procedures and problem solving skills should also be gained through involvement with practical work. 3 Copyright © 2016 OCR Sp ec ifi ca ti on s um m ar y 4 Copyright © 2016 OCR 1.1 Research methods and techniques Learners should have knowledge and understanding of the following research methods and techniques and their associated strengths and weaknesses. Experiments • Lab, field, quasi. Observations • Structured and unstructured, naturalistic and controlled, participant and non- participant, covert and overt. Self-reports • Questionnaires, Interviews (structured, semi structured and unstructured) Correlations • Obtaining data for a correlational analysis, positive, negative and no correlation. 1.2 Planning and conducting research Learners should be familiar with the following features of planning and conducting research and their associated strengths and weaknesses. Aims and hypothesis and how to formulate • Research aim, research question, null hypothesis, alternate hypothesis, one tailed (directional) hypothesis, two tailed (non-directional) hypothesis. Populations, samples, and sampling techniques • Target population and sample, random sampling, snowball sampling, opportunity sampling, self-selected sampling. Experimental designs • Repeated measures, independent measures, matched participants design. Variables and how they are operationalised • Independent variables, dependent variables, control of extraneous variables. Designing observations • Behavioural categories, coding frames, time and event sampling. Designing self -reports • Open questions, closed questions, rating scales: Likert rating scale, semantic differential rating scale. 1.3 Data recording, analysis and presentation Learners should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the procedures involved in the collection, analysis and presentation of data. This will necessitate the ability to perform some calculations. Raw data • Design of raw data recording tables, use of raw data recording tables, standard and decimal form, significant figures, make estimations from data collected. Levels and types of data • Nominal, ordinal and interval level data, qualitative and quantitative data, primary and secondary data. Descriptive statistics • Measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode), measures of dispersion (variance, range and standard deviation). Ratios, percentages, fractions, frequency tables, line graph, pie chart, bar chart, histogram, scatter diagram. Inferential statistics • Normal and skewed distribution curves, probability, significance levels, using statistical tables of critical values , criteria for using a parametric test, criteria for using a specific non parametric test (Mann Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, Chi square, binomial sin test and spearman’s Rho), type 1 and type 2 errors, symbols: =, , ∝, ~. Methodological issues • Representativeness, generalisability, reliability (internal, external, inter rater, test – retet, split half ). Validity (internal, external, face, construct, concurrent, criterion, population, ecological). Demand characteristics, social desirability, researcher/observer bias and effects. Ethical considerations including the British Psychological Society (BPS) code of ethics and conduct: Respect – informed consent, right to withdraw, confidentiality, Competence, Responsibility – protection of participant, debrief, Integrity – deception. Specification summary Sp ec ifi ca ti on s um m ar y 5 Copyright © 2016 OCR 1.4 Report writing Learners should have knowledge of the conventions of reporting research in a practical report and demonstrate understanding of the role and purpose of each of the main sections and sub sections. Sections and sub sections of a practical report • Abstract, introduction, method (design, sample, materials/apparatus, procedure), results, discussion, references, appendices. Citing academic references • A familiarity with citing academic research using the Harvard system of referencing. Peer review • Appreciate the role of the psychological community in validating new knowledge and ensuring integrity through the process of peer review. 1.5 Practical activities Learners are expected to conduct and analyse their own small scale research practical’s including appropriate risk assessment and management. Learners should have experience of the following practical activities: • Self reports • Experiments • Observations • Correlations. 1.6 How science works Learners should understand how society makes decisions about scientific issues and how psychology contributes to the success of the economy and society. Learners should be aware of the nature and principles of scientific enquiry through knowledge and understanding of the following concepts: • The study of cause and effect, falsification, replicability, objectivity, induction, deduction, hypothesis testing, manipulation of variables, control and standardisation, quantifiable measures. 1. 1 Re se ar ch m et ho ds a nd te ch ni qu es 6 Copyright © 2016 OCR 1.1 Research methods and techniques Experiments A researcher has conducted an independent measures design experiment to investigate whether chewing gum influences concentration. She recorded how many changes were detected in a ‘spot-the-difference’ puzzle by people chewing gum when completing the task, compared to those who were not. The results are in the table below. Name two variables present in a lab experiment. (2) Outline one strength and one weakness of using a lab experiment. (6) Explain the difference between a lab experiment and a field experiment. (4) What is a quasi experiment? (2) Why would a quasi experiment not be appropriate for this study? (2) State a strength and a weakness of using quasi experiments. (4) Observations A researcher wanted to covertly observe how mums at a play and stay interacted with each other. He planned to use a naturalistic structured observation. Outline one strength and one weakness of conducting observational research. (4) Outline one strength and one weakness of conducting a covert observation. (4) Explain how you would make this observation overt and what problems this might arise. (4) Explain the difference between a participant and non-participant observation. (4) What is a structured observation. (2) State a strength and a weakness of using a naturalistic observation in this study. (6) Identify one strength and one weakness of using a structured observation in this study. (4) Why would an unstructured observation not be appropriate for this study? (2) Self reports Psychologists are interested in helping people overcome their fears, anxieties and phobias. One way about finding out about these is to ask people to fill out a questionnaire. In this way they can write about their fears, anxieties and phobias and how they can overcome them without having to talk about them. Outline one advantage and one disadvantage of using a questionnaire in this study. (6) Give a strength and a weakness of using an interview instead of a questionnaire in this study. (6) Describe what is meant by a semi structured interview. (2) What is a strength of using a semi structured interview over a structured interview? (2) Why has an unstructured interview not been chosen to carry out this study? (2) Correlations Researchers conducted a study investigating the correlation between amount of sleep and concentration. First, participants were asked how long they had slept the previous night in hours and minutes. This was then recorded as ‘total minutes slept’. Concentration was then assured using a letter cancellation task in which subjects had two minutes to read an extract from a book, counting the number of times that the letter ‘f’ appeared. Explain what is meant by a negative correlation. (1) Explain what is meant by a positive correlation. (1) Explain what is meant by no correlation. (1) Identify one strength and one weakness of the correlational method. (4) Describe two problems with the way the data was obtained in this correlation. (4) 1. 2 Pl an ni ng a nd c on du ct in g re se ar ch 7 Copyright © 2016 OCR 1.2 Planning and conducting research Self reports A psychologist is interested in investigating people’s beliefs in the paranormal (e.g. ghosts, telepathy, unidentified flying objects) and decides to use a self-report measure to conduct their study. Describe how a self-selecting sampling technique could be used to obtain participants for this study. (3) State a strength and a weakness of using a self selected sampling technique for this study. (6) Explain what is meant by an ‘open question’ and a ‘closed question’. (4) Outline one strength and one weakness of using open questions in a study investigating people’s belief in the paranormal. (4) Outline one strength and one weakness of using closed questions in a study investigating people’s belief in the paranormal. (4) Suggest a question that participants could be asked in this study, using a rating scale. (2) Outline one advantage of using a question involving a rating scale in this study. (3) What is a semantic differential rating scale? (2) A researcher is interested in finding out why students at a large sixth form college have decided to study Psychology. He is going to use a self-report questionnaire. Construct a research question for this study. (3) Suggest one open and one closed question that could be used to investigate subject choice. (4) Explain one strength in using closed questions in this study. (3) Explain one weakness in using closed questions in this study. (3) Suggest how the researcher could use an opportunity sampling technique to get 50 psychology students to complete the questionnaire. (2) Evaluate the use of opportunity sampling in this study. (4) Psychologists used the self-report method to investigate gambling behaviour. They placed an advert in a local newspaper asking for men and women aged 16 to 50 to apply. Those who replied were sent a questionnaire in the post consisting of a number of open and closed questions. For example: Give reasons why you gamble. Which of the following gambling activities do you engage in?:  national lottery  fruit machines  poker  horse racing  football Identify which of the above questions is a closed question and explain why. (2) Suggest one other closed question that could be used in this study. (2) Give a strength and a weakness of the sampling method used in this study. (6) Name and describe and alternative sampling method for this study. (3) Explain how using leading questions could influence the results in this study. (3) Experiments Researchers conducted an independent measures design experiment in a local coffee bar, investigating whether receiving physical contact from someone increases their rating on friendliness. The experiment took place between 11am and 2pm on a Wednesday. As members of the public left the coffee bar after paying, some were touched lightly on the upper arm by the cashier, whereas others were not. Outside the coffee bar, members of the public were asked how friendly they thought the staff were on a scale of 1 (‘not very friendly’) to 10 (‘extremely friendly’). What is the independent variable in this study? (1) Write a two tailed hypothesis for this study. (4) Identify the sampling technique used to obtain participants for this study. (1) Suggest one weakness with the sampling method used in this study. (2) What is an ‘independent measures design’? (2) Give one advantage and one disadvantage of using an independent measures design in this study. (6) Describe how you would control one variable in this study. (2) 1. 2 Pl an ni ng a nd c on du ct in g re se ar ch 8 Copyright © 2016 OCR A researcher has conducted a matched pairs design experiment to investigate whether chewing gum influences concentration. Participants were matched on age and gender. She firstly recorded how many changes were detected in a ‘spot-the-difference’ puzzle by people not chewing gum when completing the task, then compared this to the matched group who did chew gum during the task. The results were then compared. Write a research aim for this experiment. (2) Write a null hypothesis for this experiment. (4) Outline one strength and one weakness of using a matched pairs design in this experiment. (6) Describe an alternative experimental design and one strength of using this design instead of a matched pairs design. (6) What is the Independent variable and dependent variable in this investigation? (2) Outline how you could select a sample that would be representative. (3) Explain how participant variables could bias the sample in this study. (3) Psychologists wanted to investigate why we don’t laugh when we tickle ourselves. One idea is that it is a social act that is out of our control and must be done to us by another person. To investigate this, participants had the soles of their feet tickled by another person at any time during a 30 second period. Later on the same participants had to tickle themselves. They put their feet on a tickling machine (a feather on a rotating turntable) at any time they chose during a 30 second period. The volume of laughter was recorded in decibels. Identify the experimental design used in this study. (1) Explain the difference between an independent measures design and a repeated measures design. (4) Give a strength and a weakness of the experimental design used in this study. (6) Give an advantage of using an alternative experimental design in this study. (3) Write an alternative tailed hypothesis for this study. (4) Outline one strength and one weakness of the dependant variable in this study. (6) Identify one extraneous variable in this study and how it could be controlled. (3) Psychologists wanted to investigate if smiling makes people feel happy. Participants were each shown a short video clip of a cartoon. Half the participants were asked to watch it whilst holding a pencil between their teeth, not touching their lips, so forcing them to smile. The other half were asked to watch it whilst holding the pencil just with their lips, not touching their teeth, which prevented them from smiling. Afterwards participants had to tell the psychologist how happy they felt on a scale of 1 (not very happy) to 10 (very happy). Write a one tailed hypothesis for this study. (3) What is a target population? (2) Outline one strength and one weakness of using an independent measures design in this study. (6) How could you make this study a matched pairs design? (2) Outline one strength in using a matched pairs design in this study. (3) What is the independent variable (IV) in this study and how has it been operationalised? (2) Evaluate the way the dependent variable has been measured this study. (6) Observations Researchers want to conduct an observation study of competitive behaviour at a sports centre. They conducted a naturalistic covert participant observation using time sampling. What is participant observation. (2) Identify one strength and one weakness of using the participant observation method in this study. (4) Explain what is meant by time sampling. (2) Suggest how the researchers could use time sampling in this study. (2) Write an appropriate behavioural checklist for this study. (3) Identify one strength and one weakness of using time sampling in this study. (4) Identify one strength and one weakness of using a behavioural checklist in this study. (4) Describe how you could present the data that would be collected in this study? (3) 1. 2 Pl an ni ng a nd c on du ct in g re se ar ch 9 Copyright © 2016 OCR Psychologists want to investigate university lectures anxiety levels when presenting lectures to new classes. They used event sampling to collect their data. Suggest how the researchers could use a snowball sample to obtain participants for this study. (2) State a strength and a weakness of using a snowball sample in this study. (6) What is meant by event sampling? (2) State a strength and a weakness of using evet sampling in this study. (6) If the research used a coding frame instead of event sampling what two suggestions might you make for him to observe? (2) Correlations Psychologists want to investigate if there is a correlation between how interested a person is in cars and their driving skills. Suggest an appropriate null hypothesis for this study. (4) How could ‘driving skills’ be measured in this study? (3) Evaluate the measurement of driving skills you suggested for this study. (6) Suggest an appropriate sampling method to be used in this study, justify your answer. (3) Give one strength and one weakness of the sampling method you have chosen for this study. (4) Psychologists want to investigate if there is a correlation between a person’s ratings of how ugly snakes are and how much they fear them. They used an opportunity sample. Suggest an appropriate null hypothesis for this study. (4) Suggest a research question for this study. (2) Outline how fear could be measured in this correlation study. (4) Outline one strength and one weakness of the way you would measure fear in this study. (6) Suggest a more appropriate sampling method you could use to gain participants for this study, explain your answer. (3) 1. 3 D at a re co rd in g an al ys is a nd p re se nt at io n 10 Copyright © 2016 OCR 1.3 Data recording analysis and presentation Self reports A researcher is interested in finding out why students at a large sixth form college have decided to study Psychology. He is going to use a self-report questionnaire. Discuss the validity of a closed question that could be used to investigate subject choice. (3) What is quantitative data? (2) Outline one strength and one weakness of quantitative data being collected in this study. (4) What is qualitative data? (2) Assess the reliability of the measurement of why students chose to study psychology in this study. (3) Would the data collected be primary or secondary? Explain your answer (2) How could you obtain nominal level data in this study. (3) Which measure of central tendency would be the most appropriate to analyse the results of this study and why? (2) A study investigating factors influencing inter-personal attraction was conducted by psychologists using the self-report method. This involved asking people questions about how important age, appearance, personality, occupation and money were when forming romantic relationships. People were approached in a local shopping centre one weekday morning and asked if they would take a questionnaire home to complete and return using a pre-paid envelope. Identify one ethical issue in this study. (2) How could you ensure that the questionnaire would not cause too much stress to participants? (3) Suggest how one of these ethical issues could be addressed. (3) Evaluate the validity of this research. (4) How could the researchers ensure this study had test re test reliability. (3) What type of graph or chart would be the most appropriate to display the results of this questionnaire? (1) It seems that when we make a conscious effort not to think about something specific, we can’t help but think of it! Researchers investigated this using a self-report. Participants were instructed, “Do not think of a white bear”. Each participant was studied for a period of five minutes during which time they had to say aloud what they were thinking. Following this a short interview was conducted with each participant to ask them some questions about how they felt about the task. Participants Number of times thoughts about a white bear were reported during a five minute period 1 8 2 14 3 2 4 15 5 16 6 12 7 21 8 11 9 7 10 10 Outline two findings from the data in this table. (4) Describe how an appropriate descriptive statistic could be used with the data in this table. (4) Give one strength and one weakness of the descriptive statistic you mentioned in the above question. (4) Outline one strength and one weakness of having qualitative data in this study. (6) Discuss the validity of using open questions in this study. (6) How might social desirability bean issue in this study? (2) 1. 3 D at a re co rd in g an al ys is a nd p re se nt at io n 11 Copyright © 2016 OCR Correlations A researcher has conducted a correlational study to investigate the relationship between how important a person thinks appearance is and how much they spend on clothes each month. The first variable was ‘self rating of the importance of appearance’ measured on a ten point scale (where 1 = not important and 10 = extremely important). The second variable was ‘amount of money spent on clothes each month’ measured by asking people to estimate to the nearest five pounds how much they spent in a typical month. The results are in the table below: Participants (initials) Self-rating of importance if appearance Amount spent on clothes each month HA 6 £80 EP 8 £120 SF 9 £100 PR 3 £110 MS 7 £75 JP 4 £35 AG 3 £15 BF 5 £50 Describe how data is presented in a scatter graph. (2) Sketch an appropriately labelled scatter graph displaying the results of this study. (4) What could this graph tell you about the relationship between the two variables. (3) Outline two conclusions from the data in this scatter graph. (4) Explain what is meant by the descriptive statistic called the mean. (2) When would the descriptive statistic called the ‘median’ be more appropriate and why? (4) Which inferential (non parametric) test would you use to analyse the data – give reasons for your choice (3) What is the range for the amount of money spent on clothes each month? (1) 1. 3 D at a re co rd in g an al ys is a nd p re se nt at io n 12 Copyright © 2016 OCR A psychologist conducted a correlation study to investigate the relationship between the number of friends people claim to have on internet social networking sites and number of times they go out socialising each month. The data was obtained from students in a psychology class who left the classroom one at a time to provide details to a researcher sitting outside. The findings from the study are presented in the scatter graph below. From the scatter graph presented above, what is the mode for ‘the number of times going out socialising each month’ and how do you know this? (2) Outline two findings from the scatter graph. (4) What is qualitative data? (2) Suggest two examples of qualitative data that could have been collected in this study. (4) What is a strength and a weakness of collecting quantitative data in this study? (4) Identify one ethical issue in this study. (2) Discuss a problem with demand characteristics in relation to this study. (2) Observations Researchers want to conduct an observation study of shopping behaviour at a large local supermarket. The table below shows the number of times different behaviours were observed. Reading magazine stand Talking to other people Queuing quietly for shopping Using a mobile phone Arguing with partner 10 11 18 28 8 Describe one ethical issue that the researchers need to consider when conducting this observation and suggest how this could be dealt with. (4) Explain what is meant by inter-rater reliability in observational research. (2) Suggest how the researchers could ensure that this observation has inter-rater reliability. (4) Sketch an appropriate graph or chart to display the findings from this stud.y (4) Outline two findings from the data displayed in this graph or chart. (4) Outline one disadvantage of having quantitative data in the study. (3) What level of data has been collected in this study? (1) number of friends on social networking sites number of times going out socialising each month 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 1. 3 D at a re co rd in g an al ys is a nd p re se nt at io n 13 Copyright © 2016 OCR Couples sometimes imitate each other’s behaviours usually without realising it, such as folding arms at the same time as each other. Psychologists call this ‘postural echoing’. To study this, two researchers sat in a bar for one hour monitoring the behaviour of one couple at a time from the moment they entered until they left. Two couples were monitored and the data is presented in the table below. Number of times the couples performed behaviours at the same time as each other Fold arms Cross Legs Rest head on hand Drink Touch Hair Touch Nose 12 8 10 7 5 3 Identify one ethical issue that the researchers needed to consider when conducting this observation. (2) Suggest how they could have dealt with this issue. (2) Suggest how the researchers could have ensured that this observation had high inter-rater reliability. (4) State an issue with the generalisability of the sample in this study. (2) Explain how observer bias may influence the results in this study. (2) Outline two findings from the data in this table. (4) Evaluate validity of using a behavioural checklist in this study. (6) Briefly outline what is meant by reliability in psychological research. (4) Experiments Psychologists are interested in the factors that influence effective learning. Any strategies that can aid students in their recall of information are always welcome. Memory can be improved during the process of registration, storage or recall, and factors that may improve it may be social, physiological, environmental or psychological. A psychologist plan to use a repeated measures design experiment to test learning strategies. Briefly discuss one ethical issue in relation to this study. (3) Suggest how to measure the dependent variable in this study. (3) Sketch a suitable raw data recording table the researcher could use to collect their data. (3) What level of data would the researcher be collecting in this investigation? (2) Which inferential (non parametric) test would you use to analyse the data in this study– give reasons for your choice. (3) Suggest a form of secondary data the researcher could utilise to support their own data collection. (2) What does P-----------< (b) < ---------- > Explain how you would carry out an experiment in to whether older people more susceptible to visual illusions than younger people? Justify your decisions as part of your explanation, you must refer to: • Field or lab experiments • Independent measures or matched participants • At least one control you would use • Collection of data. You should use your own experience of carrying out an experiment to inform your response. (15) 1. 5 Pr ac ti ca l a ct iv it ie s 17 Copyright © 2016 OCR Self reports Questionnaires are often used to assess people attitudes to current events and to factors affecting attitude change. Psychologists have obtained information on such diverse topics as attitudes to body image and attitudes to drinking and driving this information has enabled research in to the factors affecting attitude to change. Explain how you would carry out a questionnaire into ‘Attitudes to parental discipline’. Justify your decisions as part of your explanation, you must refer to: • Open and closed questions • At least one ethical issue • Socially desirable answers • Bar charts. You should use your own experience of carrying out a self-report to inform your response. (15) Correlations Psychologists use correlational designs to investigate relationships between variables that are difficult to investigate experimentally. Correlational designs are often used to investigate the relationship between environmental variables and human behaviour. For example research has examined environmental variables such as heat, sunshine, pollution and social density (crowding) and their relationships with happiness, aggression, helping behaviours, and performance on cognitive tasks. Explain how you would carry out a correlational analysis in to the relationship between levels of exposure to sunlight and happiness. Justify your decisions as part of your explanation, you must refer to: • At least ordinal level data • Data presentation • Validly • At least one ethical issue. You should use your own experience of carrying out a correlation to inform your response. (15) Observations Naturalistic observations are conducted by psychologists when they want to find out how people behave without experimental manipulation. Today psychologists should adhere to the BPS guidelines to avoid unethical treatment of participants. With sufficient training, psychologists can detect small differences in behaviour, such as facial expression and gesture, to infer how people are feeling and thinking. Explain how you would carry out a n observation in to eating behaviour. Justify your decisions as part of your explanation, you must refer to. • A behavioural checklist • Participant or non participant observation • Time or event sampling • Inter rater reliability. You should use your own experience of carrying out an observation to inform your response. (15) 1. 6 H ow S ci en ce w or ks 18 Copyright © 2016 OCR 1.6 How Science works What is meant by the term falsification? (2) How can a psychologist ensure their research can establish cause and effect? (2) Explain what is meant by the term cause and effect. (2) Why is it important for psychological research to be replicable? (2) What is meant by the term objectivity? (2) What is meant by quantifiable measures in psychological research? (2) Explain the process of induction. (4) Explain the process of deduction. (4) Explain how hypothesis testing works in experiments. (3) Why is the manipulation of variables important in psychological research? (2) How can psychologists ensure control in their research? (2) What is the purpose of having a standardised procedure in psychological research? (2) Why are quantifiable measures preferred in most psychological research than qualitative methods? (2) Th e sm al l p ri nt We’d like to know your view on the resources we produce. By clicking on the ‘Like’ or ‘Dislike’ button you can help us to ensure that our resources work for you. When the email template pops up please add additional comments if you wish and then just click ‘Send’. Thank you. 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