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The Chemistry of Life from Escience Labs

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This is a lab report that I cannot complete due to the fact I don't have all the materials. This lab requires testing of Albumin, gelatin, glucose, and water for proteins. Then we are testing potato onion glucose and water for reducing sugars. Then we are testing potato, onion, starch, and water for starch
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Experiment 1Testing for Biomolecules Experiment Inventory Materials 10 mL Biuret Solution (H2NC(O)NHC(O)NH) 10 mL Benedict’s Solution 10 mL 1% Iodine Potassium-Iodide (IKI) Solution 15 mL 1% Glucose Solution (C6H12O6) 10 mL Liquid Starch Solution 15 mL Unknown Solution Gelatin Packet *Permanent Marker *Room-Temperature Tap Water *Hot Water Bath *Egg White *Stopwatch/Timer *Knife *Onion *Potato (Yukon Gold, Russet, Idaho, etc.) Labware (2) 250 mL Beakers 10 mL Graduated Cylinder 100 mL Graduated Cylinder 7 Pipettes 4 Glass Test Tubes Test Tube Rack Ruler Spatula Thermometer Note: You must provide the materials listed in *red. EXPERIMENT 1: TESTING FOR BIOMOLECULES Many of the foods we eat contain the biomolecules necessary for life. Proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids can all be obtained through a well-balanced diet. How can a scientist determine if a certain biomolecule is present? The simplest way is to use an indicator. An indicator is a compound that undergoes a change (generally in color) in the presence of a certain chemical or molecule. For example, Biuret solution is an indicator for proteins, whereas Benedict’s solution is an indicator for reducing sugars. In Parts 1 – 3 of this experiment, you will determine whether proteins, reducing sugars, or starch are present in a series of known solutions. Then, you will use the knowledge you have gained to design an experiment to identify the biomolecules present in an unknown solution. © 2018, eScience Labs PROCEDURE Part 1: Testing for Proteins The protein molecules found in many foods provide the amino acid building blocks required by cells to produce new proteins. To determine whether a protein is present in a sample, Biuret solution is used. Biuret solution contains copper ions. In the absence of proteins, it is blue in color. However, when proteins are present, the chemical state of the copper ions allows a chemical complex to be formed with the peptide bonds between amino acids, resulting in a color change. In the presence of short peptides, the solution will turn pink, and in the presence of long polypeptides, the solution will turn violet. 1. Label four glass test tubes 1 – 4 and place them in the test tube rack. 2. Create an albumin solution by mixing one egg white with 25 mL of room-temperature water in a 250 mL beaker. Pipette 5 mL of this solution into Test Tube 1. 3. Prepare the gelatin by mixing the contents of the packet with 50 mL of hot water in a second 250 mL beaker. Stir until dissolved, and then pipette 5 mL of this solution into Test Tube 2. 4. Pipette 5 mL of the 1% glucose solution into Test Tube 3. Note: Do not throw away the pipette used to dispense the 1% glucose solution. You will use it again throughout the rest of this experiment. 5. Use the 10 mL graduated cylinder to measure and pour 5 mL of room-temperature water into Test Tube 4. 6. Record the initial color of each sample in Table 1. 7. Research whether proteins are present in albumin solution, gelatin solution, or glucose solution. Using your research, record whether you anticipate each solution will be protein-positive or protein-negative in Table 1. 8. Pipette 1 mL of Biuret solution into each test tube. Swirl each tube to mix. 9. Record the final color and whether or not protein is present in Table 1. 10. When you have finished recording your data, wash and dry the glass test tubes for Part 2. Part 2: Testing for Reducing Sugars Many of the foods we eat contain carbohydrates. Monosaccharides and short-chain carbohydrates, such as disaccharides, taste sweet due to certain aspects of their chemical structure. Benedict’s reagent can be used to determine whether a reducing sugar, such as glucose or fructose, is present. Like Biuret solution, Benedict’s reagent contains copper. In the absence of a reducing sugar, it is blue in color. However, when heated in the presence of a reducing sugar, the copper ions react with the free end of the reducing sugars, producing an orange or red precipitate. 1. Label four glass test tubes 1 – 4. 2. Cut a raw potato into an approximately 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm cube. Cut the cube into smaller pieces, and then add 5 – 10 drops of water and mash it with the spatula. 3. Use the spatula to place half of the mashed raw potato into Test Tube 1. Then, use the 10 mL graduated cylinder to measure and pour 5 mL of water into Test Tube 1. Note: Do not discard the remaining potato. You will need it for Part 3. Thoroughly wash the spatula after this step. 4. Cut a raw onion into an approximately 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm cube. Cut the cube into smaller pieces, and mash it with the spatula. © 2018, eScience Labs 5. Use the spatula to place half of the mashed onion into Test Tube 2. Then, use the 10 mL graduated cylinder to measure and pour 5 mL of water into Test Tube 2. Note: Do not discard the remaining onion. You will need it for Part 3. 6. Pipette 5 mL of the 1% glucose solution into Test Tube 3. 7. Use the 10 mL graduated cylinder to measure and pour 5 mL of water into Test Tube 4. 8. Record the initial color of each sample in Table 2. 9. Research whether reducing sugars are present in potatoes, onions, or glucose solution. Using your research, record whether you anticipate each solution will be reducing sugar-positive or reducing sugar-negative in Table 2. 10. Prepare a hot water bath by heating water using a stovetop or microwave-safe container. The container should be able to contain all four test tubes. Heat the water to a temperature between 85°C and 100°C (not boiling). 11. Pipette 1 mL of Benedict’s solution into each test tube. Swirl each tube to mix. 12. Place the test tubes into the hot water bath and let sit for 3 minutes. Remove the tubes from water, and place them in the test tube rack to cool for 5 minutes. 13. Record the final color and whether or not reducing sugars are present in Table 2. 14. When you have finished recording your data, wash and dry the glass test tubes for Part 4. Part 3: Testing for Starch Many of the foods we eat contain polysaccharides, such as starch. Iodine potassium-iodide (IKI) and other iodine solutions contain tri-iodine ions, which can interact with the coiled structure of starch polymers. In solution, iodine is a yellow-brown color. However, when iodine ions bind to the coils of a starch molecule, the iodine changes structure, producing a dark blue-black color. 1. Label four glass test tubes 1 – 4. 2. Place the remaining half of the mashed raw potato from Part 2 into Test Tube 1. Then, use the 10 mL graduated cylinder to measure and pour 5 mL of water into Test Tube 1. 3. Place the remaining half of the mashed raw onion from Part 2 into Test Tube 2. Then, use the 10 mL graduated cylinder to measure and pour 5 mL of water into Test Tube 2. 4. Pipette 5 mL of the liquid starch solution into Test Tube 3. 5. Use the 10 mL graduated cylinder to measure and pour 5 mL of water into Test Tube 4. 6. Record the initial color of each sample in Table 3. 7. Research whether starch is present in potatoes or onions. Using your research, record whether you anticipate each solution will be starch-positive or starch-negative in Table 3. 8. Pipette 10 drops of IKI solution into each test tube. Swirl each tube to mix. 9. After 1 – 2 minutes have passed, record the final color and whether or not starch is present in Table 3. 10. When you have finished recording your data, wash and dry the glass test tubes for Part 4. Part 4: Determining the Biomolecules Present in an Unknown Using your knowledge of biomolecule testing, develop a series of experiments to determine the biomolecules present in the unknown solution. When designing your experiment, create a hypothesis, identify and use positive and negative controls, record appropriate data, and report important data in an organized manner. Use Tables 4 – 6 to guide your experiment development. After completing your experiment, wash and dry all reusable materials (including the glass test tubes), and write a brief post-lab report in which you address your hypothesis, procedure, data, data analysis, and conclusions. © 2018, eScience Labs Data Sheet Experiment 1 Data Sheet Table 1: Testing for Proteins Results Sample Initial Color Hypothesis (Protein +/-) Final Color Protein Present? Albumin (1) Gelatin (2) Glucose (3) Water (4) Table 2: Testing for Reducing Sugars Results Sample Initial Color Hypothesis (Reducing Sugar +/-) Final Color Reducing Sugar Present? Potato (1) Onion (2) Glucose (3) Water (4) Table 3: Testing for Starch Results Sample Initial Color Hypothesis (Starch +/-) Final Color Starch Present? Potato (1) Onion (2) Starch (3) Water (4) © 2018, eScience Labs Table 4: Testing an Unknown - Proteins Sample Initial Color Hypothesis (Protein +/-) Final Color Protein Present? Positive Control: Negative Control: Unknown Table 5: Testing an Unknown – Reducing Sugars Sample Initial Color Hypothesis (Reducing Sugar +/-) Final Color Reducing Sugar Present? Positive Control: Negative Control: Unknown Table 6: Testing an Unknown – Starch Sample Initial Color Hypothesis (Starch +/-) Final Color Starch Present? Positive Control: Negative Control: Unknown © 2018, eScience Labs
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